The paper examines Bibliotherapy (Book Therapy) as an option for fostering students' motivation for academic achievement and success. Enhancing students' motivation for academic achievement is an important subject in educational psychology which requires serious attention. The research is a survey study and random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the population sample. The Respondents for this study are Senior Secondary School 3 students from Iganmode Grammar School (a Public School) and Grait International College (a Private School) both located in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The finding revealed that students who read diverse kinds of materials including textbooks; used library material; and acquired personal reading materials had their achievement motivation enhanced/increased than those who do not read books, use library resources or acquire personal books. Thus, the two Null Hypotheses tested were rejected. Recommendations include: (1) that the Government and all other institution responsible for managing Education of younger generations should come together and find a lasting solution to the education sector, conduct research, and prescribe practicable educational policies that will move the nation's education forward. (2) Government should increase the funding of education. (3) Librarians should collaborate with school authorities, counselors and teachers in order to render more effective library services. (4) Librarians should work with school teachers and counsellors to know the reading needs and challenges of students; this will assist in acquiring relevant reading materials in addition to academic books. (5) Book club programmes packaged with giving of awards to best readers and most frequent users of library resources should be encouraged in schools. (6) School Management should make provision for a robust school library that is stocked with all kinds relevant materials including motivational books. Finally (7) Bibliotherapy should be taught as a course or incorporated into an already existing course offered in Nigeria Library Schools.
The Nigerian education system has been bedeviled and battered by several problems which affected the general academic performance and output of students in major national examinations. The decline in students' performance is alarming and embarrassing. This is so for all levels of the educational system, including primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This unfortunate situation has persisted for some years now. Governments after governments have come and have not been able to find a lasting solution to the age long education problem.
As reported in the Guardian Newspaper of October 19th 2009, the scandalously poor results in the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) are clear indications of a progressive slide into the abyss by a rather uncoordinated educational system in urgent need of redemption.. The affected students are products of years of decay in a key sector of the Nation's economy. The system has failed to deliver good quality education to Nigerians, and from the analysis of the examination bodies, most schools and students posted horrible results.
This situation should however, compel all relevant authorities to start thinking about an interventionist measure to arrest the situation. Assessing the performance of 1, 184, 907 candidates who wrote the 2009 examination out of the 1, 200, 765 registered, NECO recorded 126, 500 candidates about (10. 53%) making five credits and higher scores in subjects including English language and Mathematics, this being the acceptable basic standard for admission into tertiary institutions. Examination malpractices are the outcome of the falling standards of education. This is due to lack of Governments' attention and the nonchalance of other relevant bodies concerned with ensuring the maintenance of standards in the education system. Furthermore, WAEC confirmed that 356,981 candidates (25.99 %) of the 1, 373, 009 entries got the basic requisite qualification grades of five credits and above including English Language and Mathematics, while about 75 percent failed to make five credits and above. As alarming and depressing as this may be, WAEC result of year 2009 is said to be better than 2008 which recorded 13.76 percent out of 1, 369, 142 candidates achieving five credit pass including English Language and Mathematics.
The above scenario is a true picture of what obtains not only at the secondary levels of education, but also the primary and tertiary levels. This dismal state of the nation's education system calls for urgent attention of the stake holders in the education sector. Negligence of government is one of the major contributing factors responsible for the sorry state of Nigeria's education system. Other factors include poor funding of education, inadequate education policy, and attitude of teachers toward the teaching profession, attitude of parents towards their children's education, state of poverty in the country lack of appropriate learning environment. In addition, factors from within the students include poor study habit, and lack of motivation for academic achievement and success.
This lack of motivation, as a factor for students' dismal performance in national examinations is the reason why students lack personal effort in pursuit of education. It is also the reason for embarking on this investigation. Hence, lack of sustainable motivation for academic achievement and success is an issue that must be examined and looked into. This is because intrinsic motivation for any assignment/ engagement determines the success or failure of that assignment more so as it emanate from within self. The subject of underachievement among students is one that must attract the concern of all stakeholders.
Statement of the Problem
Lack of achievement motivation by students among other factors is a major hindrance to students' academic pursuit in Nigeria, hence the perennial experience of mass failure in national examinations. Empirical research reports show that students who lack achievement motivation can hardly make progress academically. The researcher is therefore of the view that Bibliotherapy which involves prescribing relevant books (either by self or by trained/ qualified professionals) including other helpful literature can be used as a support/ back-up approach to addressing the problem of poor academic performance in national examinations due to lack of achievement motivation. This study therefore is an attempt to investigate this possibility. That is, using bibliotherapy to enhance sustainable students' motivation for academic achievement. The investigation will involve finding out how much reading of books can impact and communicate specific messages to readers and library users, especially those who lack motivation for academics.
Objectives of the Study
The investigation aims at achieving the following objectives
1. To identify achievement motivated respondents and those that are not.
2. To determine whether reading books can actually influence and increase respondents' motivation for achievement.
3. To determine whether achievement motivated respondents actually use and access library materials.
4. To determine if there is a relationship between personal acquisition of books and respondents motivation for achievement.
5. To examine the relationship between library resources utilization and achievement motivation of respondents.
6. To determine the kinds of books achievement motivated respondents prefer reading
1 . Can reading relevant and related motivational books influence students' achievement motivation?
2. What percentage of achievement motivated respondents are actually influenced or motivated by reading books?
3. Do respondents who use/read library resources/books acquire their own personal reading collection?
4. Among the respondents, are there achievement motivated ones who acquire their own book collections and at the same time consult library materials?
5. Is there a relationship between Respondents' usage of library resources and Respondents achievement motivation? Or does library material usage translate to respondents' achievement motivation?
6. Can it be established that reading certain materials can influence and motivate students towards academic achievement?
Significance of the Study
The study will provide an additional approach for enhancing achievement motivation in students who lack it. Furthermore, the findings will provide deeper insight and revelations into the problems of academic underachievement resulting from low achievement motivation amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Furthermore, the findings and knowledge generated from this study will be an addition to the existing body of knowledge.
IGANMODE GRAMMAR SC HOOL OTA-OGUN STATE
Iganmode grammar School, Ota, was founded on 25th of January, 1960. It started at a temporary site in Sango Ota with 30 boys as day students and 3 teachers. Mr. M. A Adebulugbe as its pioneering Principal. The model school moved to its permanent site at Oju-Ore, along Idiroko Road, Ota in 1961.
The founding of the school was premised on the need to provide a sound secondary education to the indigenous sons especially. This objective became widened to accommodate girls as the importance of girls' education became more obvious. With the admission of girls in 1970 also came the provision of boarding facilities. Since Secondary education then was for a period of six years, the school enrolled candidates for the West African School Certificate Examination for the first time in November/ December, 1965. Chief R. A Deinde took over as second principal the same year the school graduated its first set of female students in December, 1972.
Significantly, the development of science subjects in the school was gradual with Biology laboratory coming first in terms of construction and equipments, while laboratories for Chemistry and Physics was completed in 1972 during the tenure of Mr. J. A Abiona as Principal.
The registration of students for Biology and Chemistry did not start until after 1971. In the subsequent years after 1974 the school secured WAEC approval to register candidates for the three science subjects. The school offers comprehensive secondary education with twenty six subjects. Its focus is to prepare students in the domain of the cognitive, psychomotor and affective development for responsible citizenship, and tomorrow's leadership through participation in the school programmes and sitting for the Junior Secondary School Certificate and the Senior School Certificate Examinations.
GRAIT INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OTA - OGUN STATE
Grait International College is a private secondary school. It was founded in 1994 as a full-fledge Comprehensive College for boys and girls. The school has both day and boarding facilities. The founders, of course, had the vision of providing a unique and very standard private secondary school education where young Nigerians and other International Students are given a good start in life academically and morally. It is located along Idiriko Road in Ota, Ogun State in an exclusive, serene, and conducive environment for learning and teaching. The management's vision is to leave indelible footprint on the annals of Nigerian private secondary school education. The school is noted for her display of love, team-spirit, integrity, diligence, neatness, dexterity, service, self-reliance, creativity and godliness. The driving motto for the school is: Learn and Serve.
Motivation is a driving force which propels individuals to accomplish specific tasks. It is also described as an academic engagement. Motivation is one determining factor in any learning process. Individuals have unequal motivation towards similar activities. Slavin (2000) observed that some students are more motivated to socialize and watch television programmes in preference to school work. Baron (1998) defines motivation as an internal process that activates guides and maintains behaviour overtime.
Tucker, Zayco and Herman (2002) describe motivation as a cognitive, emotional and behavioural indicator of students' investment in and attachment to education. Inability to work hard has been traced to lack of motivation. Researchers have suggested that motivation affects academic achievement directly while other factors affect achievement indirectly, through their influence and effect on motivation (Tucker et al, 2002).
The significance of motivation to students' success or failure in academic endeavor calls for more research on the subject, especially within the Nigerian context in finding solutions to the perennial mass failure recorded in national examinations.
Maehr and Medley (1991) suggested that changes need to be made at the school level to increase students' motivation rather than focusing on change in individual classrooms.
There are two types of motivation; each affecting academic achievement in a different way. Extrinsic motivation comes from the environment; while intrinsic comes from within the student.
Parental expectations; grades and tangible rewards, such as candy, sweets, and biscuits e.t.c are all extrinsic motivators. Extrinsic motivation can easily be produced and increase achievement quickly. However, it has the disadvantage of students focusing on the reward rather than academic achievement. Over time students begin to expect more reward and achievement can drop if reward is not increased or forthcoming.
Curiosity, a belief that the subject is relevant to the student's life and a sense of accomplishment are all intrinsic motivators that drive academic achievement. Intrinsic motivation can take a long time and be slow to increase achievement. The methods needed to increase students' intrinsic achievement vary form students to students. This type of academic achievement is self-driven and lifelong.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMICS
People vary in motivation for achievement depending on the tasks or activity they are engaged According to Aire and Telia (2003) McClelland and colleagues developed a projection technique using selected picture cards from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). The technique assumes that when asked to write stories about the pictures, respondents will project their feelings about themselves unto the characters in the pictures. Achievement motivation is the equivalent of a person's actual achievement.
Since 1961, when extensive research on achievement motivation was propounded by McClelland and his associates, there have concentrated efforts to find methods of increasing this valuable human virtue in young people
Some of the interventions techniques adopted or used previously to tackle the problem of academic underachievement include the Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) behaviour modification strategies; cognitive restructuring etc. thus reading relevant materials with the purpose of solving an existing problem is called Bibliotherapy.
Achievement motivation could be seen as self determination to succeed in whatever activities one engages in, be it academic work, professional work, sporting events, among others. Gesinde (2000) posits that the urge to achieve varies from one individual to the other, while for some individuals need for achievement is very high whereas for others it may be very low. However, there are high achievers and low achievers. What is responsible for the variation could be
the fact that achievement motivation is believed to be learnt during socialization processes and learning experiences. As a matter of fact this varies from one individual to the other. Gesinde (2000) asserts further that, those who have high achievers as their models in their early life experience would develop the high need to achieve, while those who have low achievers as their
models hardly develop the need to achieve.
Worchel and Shebilske (1989) viewed achievem ent motive as a general desire to set and achieve high standards of excellence. Uwakwe, Oke and Aire (1995) explained that individuals with strong achievement motivation generally are self-confident individuals who are at their best taking responsibility in situations where they can control what happens to them.
Bibliotherapy is a concept that gained popularity from 1917. It is a term coined to describe the use of books for solving varying kinds of human problems. Appreciating the curative power of books, Crowther (1916) recommended the prescription of books to patients who needed help in understanding their problems better. He described a bibliotherapeutic process in which specific literature, both fiction and non-fiction, was prescribed as medicine for a variety of ailments. Although bibliotherapy is not widely used, it depends and relies solely on the use of books and other reading resources (non-print media) to solve emotional, behavioral and some medical health problems. It is popular among psychiatrists, including teachers. Katz and Watt (2000) described bibliotherapy as the guided use of reading materials with a therapeutic view in mind. They argued that supplementary reading gives a client the opportunity of experiencing what others have passed through, and that it should never replace the therapist. It is agreed among some researchers that bibliotherapy requires the guidance of the therapist at every state of the process, including choosing the material, interpretation, making inference, catharsis, and integrating insight. In the early years of biliotherapy research, emphasis was on healing the minds of psychiatry patients in hospitals.
Bibliotherapy studies also include helping young people overcome many problems confronting them. School counselors and teachers used bibliotherapy to assist students with disabilities to cope with classroom work. It is used to help children cope with the death of loved ones. Other problems in which bibliotherapy techniques have been used include issues on conflict resolution, nurturing of emotional development of self awareness and self- acceptance in emotionally handicapped students. It is also used for individual and group counselling. The applications of bibliotherapeutic techniques include analyzing readers' needs and recommending reading materials to fit those needs. Bibliotherapy involves the use of relevant materials to reshape thought patterns. It is a medium of communication, for communicating or conveying messages from the author to the reader. It provides opportunity for readers to identify with someone experiencing similar overwhelming painful problems. Bibliotherapy helps the reader gain insight into how to manage the problem. The emotional involvement of readers while reading the material provides awareness of self. The identity is also strengthened. Bibliotherapy has been used to give children confidence at school; and parents opportunities to discuss ideas with their children and to initiate conversations about learning. At a basic level, bibliotherapy consists of selecting reading materials for readers; the idea seems to spring from the human need to communicate with others through an understanding of literature and art. For instance, a grieving child who reads (or is read to) about other people and cultures or about setbacks will naturally feel less alone in the world. The concept of bibliotherapy has evolved to include self-help books without "prescriptions"; the phrase has fallen from favour in recent times but is still used in reference to children.
In fostering students' motivation for academics, bibliotherapy technique stands a chance of being effective, in addition to employing other methods to enhance motivation for achievement through the use of selected appropriate reading materials, such as bibliographies, academic related motivational books, true life stories, fiction stories and so on.
Students experiencing under achievement challenges and have given up the idea of furthering their education, might have a rethink by reading such materials. Also, students experiencing frustration academically might be helped just by reading stories about others who passed through similar academic challenges and helping them to see the possibility of overcoming their academic challenges. For, instance the books on Ben Carson, Afe Babalola, Thomas Edison and several others are good motivational materials for overcoming academic failure challenges. These great men have thread the path of academic struggles and many of them were written off as failures or good for nothing, but struggled against the tides academically to become celebrated today. These men read volumes upon volumes of books till they began to write themselves. They were indeed achievement motivated individuals who with determination drove themselves to success.
SELF - HELP BIBLIOTHERAPY
Self - help bilbiotherapy involves the use of non - fiction books based on cognitive behavioural therapy techniques to help people to understand and change their behaviour (Brewster, 2008). Self - help bibliotherapy involves a prescription element frequently operating under the name of "Books on Prescription". Brewster (2008) observes that the U.K. bibliotherapy schemes are typically operated by libraries, often in partnership, with health care organizations like the NHS.
Jack and Ronan (2008), a librarian (Sadie Peterson- Dehaney) in 1923, involved in the rehabilitation of (W W I Veterans), established one of the earliest recorded formal programmes of bibliotherapy. She prescribed reading materials to soldiers to boost their self esteem and "relieve the mind from malady and worry". Aiex (1993) identifies several ways in which bibliotherapy can be beneficial.
- To show an individual that he or she is not the first or only person to encounter such a problem.
- To show an individual that there is more than one solution to a problem.
- To help a person discuss a problem more freely
- To help an individual plan a constructive course of action to solve a problem.
- To an individual self concept
- To relieve emotional or mental pressure
- To foster an individual 's honest self- appraisal
- To provide for away for a person to find interests outside of self.
- To increase an individual understanding of human behaviours or motions.
Pardeck (1994) established six potential goals of the use of bibliotherapy.
- To provide information about problems.
- Provide insight into problems
- To stimulate discussion about problems
- To communicate new values and attitudes
- To create an awareness that others have dealt with similar problems
- To provide solutions to problems.
IMPLICATION FOR LIBRARIANS AND LIBRARIES
As managers and organizers of knowledge and information, librarians have the responsibility of working hand in hand with teachers and counselors in schools. Their role would be to identify the reading needs of readers, acquire appropriate materials, process and make them accessible to library users. In every school system, there are the highly motivated students and those who lack motivation for academics. A professional librarian should be able to identify the various categories of students and their needs, in order to provide them with relevant reading materials with a view to fostering sustainable achievement motivation for academics, in them.
The school librarian is thus in a perfect position to do this. The school librarian must be able to guide and monitor the reading progress of students, ensuring that the intended message in the reading material is conveyed and the right impact achieved.
Brewster (2008) explains that bibliotherapy can be viewed as a service that libraries provide for their readers' development work and engaging people with fiction and poetry to provide enjoyment makes from anecdotal evidence, a contribution to people's mental health and well being. Libraries are in a unique position to provide input to schemes to provide free access to self books to recommendation of the medical profession.
The U. K Public Library Services have set up schemes under the banner of books on prescription to enable library users to borrow books while examining the subject of bibliotherapy Clark (2005) notes that the library media specialist has a grave responsibility to ensure that library media center collection have reliable sources. That library media specialist should use reputable journal reviews to choose fiction and nonfiction books for their collections.
The senior secondary school 3 of Iganmode Grammar School and Grait International College students in Ota were the target group for this study. A total of 120 students were randomly selected from the two schools. In Iganmode Grammar School, 90 students were randomly picked from Iganmode Grammar School and 30 from Grait International College, Ota, The difference in sample size is due to the population size of the two schools. Secondly, Grait International College is a private and a fee paying school in contrast to the public school (Iganmode Grammar School) that is almost free of school fees. So students' enrolment in the public school is almost.
Bibliotherapy and Achievement Motivation Rating Scale (BRAMS) was the instrument used for collecting the data for this investigation. The instrument was designed in 2003 by the researcher. However, it was modified and new items included making relevant for this study. The BRAMS is divided into seven sections, Section A the personal biodata, section contains items such as: Sex, name of school, State of origin, Age, Class level and Subject interest. Section B, contains items on influence of Book reading on students' motivation for academic success and achievement. Section C contains items on kinds of books read by students, Section D contains items on reading materials personally acquired by students, Section E contains items on benefits of reading, and Section F contains items on using the library and G items on students' academic achievement motivation. One hundred and twenty questionnaires were administered and all copies retrieved. However, only hundred were found to be usable (i.e. 83.3 % of the administered questionnaire were used for the analysis).
PYSCHOMETRIC properties of BRAMS
The questionnaire of six (6) scales is:
A. Influence of reading books on students motivation academic achievement.
B. Kinds of books read.
C. Reading materials personally acquired.
D. Benefits of reading.
E. Access and use of reading material in the library.
F. Students' academic achievement motivation.
The reliability of the scales was ascertained by employing the split half reliability coefficient. This was achieved by administrating the scale twice to the respondents. All six scales were considered reliable enough for the conduct of the study.
The split half correlation coefficient was found to be as follow:
Scale A - 0.66
Scale B -0.52
Scale C - 0.64
Scale D - 0.77
Scale E - 0.57
Scale F - 0.59
The questionnaire titled "Bibliotherapy and Achievement Motivation Rating Scale (BRAMS) possessed content validity. The researcher sought the assistance of three lecturers to validate the questionnaire. The items were adequately found to be in line with the aims and objectives of investigation.
The above table reveals an overwhelming majority of respondents affirmed positively that reading books influenced them one way or the other especially in the area of academics. Very few of them indicated reading did not influence them. While 100%, 98%, 99% and 98% respectively agreed strongly or weakly that book reading actually helped them focus their attention on pursuing academic excellence, others got inspired to work harder, many more desired and dreamed of becoming a great scholars, or learnt about great achievers of the past in the academic field. Furthermore, the responses show that reading gives readers the opportunity of reading biographies or autobiographies of great men in diverse fields. Reading also increased students' determination, dream big and pursue education to the highest level. However, a fewer number affirmed in the negative that reading did not influence them. On the average, over 80% of respondents are not just determined to pursue education, but attain the highest level education.
Table 2 above reveals the frequency distribution of respondents' responses to the kinds of books they love to read. The above result show that 99% read text books, 48% romantic novels, 92% read true life stories, science Action, newspapers and magazines, 89% read adventure stories, 72% read comics, 71% read Bible/ Christian literature., 44% read Quoran/ Islamic literature, and 77% read autobiography books. The above shows that majority of respondents read diverse kinds books, especially textbooks and other academic books.
The result above shows a slit difference in respondents' responses to the use of library materials. While 88% affirmed that they used library resources 74% of the respondents do not used library resources. 73% of respondents indicated that they accessed library books via the catalogue, while 50% browsed the shelves directly for books without the catalogue. 66% of respondents depended on no other than themselves to source for library materials; this implies that majority of the respondents are skillful in the use of library facilities.
The result in table 4 above show that a greater percent of the respondents either "strongly agree" or "agree" this points to the fact that most of the respondents are academically and achievement motivated individuals. However, a few of the respondents are neither academically or achievement motivated. Most of the motivated respondents affirmed they look forward to going to school every day, do not eat before going to school, always stay in class, make use of the school library, have interest in all school subjects, view passing as the reason for schooling, feel dejected during school break study on their own without prompting, takes interest in everything, enjoy going to school again and again, approach life success through education.
The finding revealed that there is a significant relationship between the Kinds of books respondents read and the influence such books/ materials have on students' motivation for academic achievement, thus the correlation is positive, where r = .208, P value is .05. Hypothesis 1 is therefore rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted. This result analysis affirms that the kind books/ materials students read affect or influence their motivation for academic achievement.
The finding revealed that there is a significant relationship between respondents' achievement motivation and respondents' use of library resources, thus there is a significant positive correlation, where r = .32, P < .05. Hypothesis 2 is therefore rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted. This implies that students' effective utilization of library materials or resources as the case may be can positively enhance/ improve their academic achievement motivation.
It was observed from the investigation that reading relevant books and other literature can actually stir up students' motivation and provoke a drive for academic achievement. The two null hypotheses tested were rejected, while the alternate hypotheses were accepted. The finding revealed that the kind of books people read can influence and motivate respondents positively or negatively. Hence respondents' response to the different items in table one snowed how much impact book reading influence readers. From the analysis, it can be deduced that reading of appropriate academic motivation enhancing books provokes achievement drive in students. Thus Students' achievement motivation is significantly correlated to the books they read. Table 3 analysis reveals that about 55% of respondents consult library materials through diverse ways. While Table 6 analyses revealed that there is a high significant correlation between library material usage by respondents and their achievement motivation. Implying that consistent and effective utilization of library materials enhances students' motivation for achievement. In addition, 67% of respondents affirmed they accessed library resources using author, title and subject catalogue. Osiki (2001) in a study on "The mastery of library cataloguing system as a basic principle to bibliotherapy..." concluded library cataloguing system is goal directed and dividends yielding. Table 4 shows that respondents have a strong inclination for academics, implying that they are academically motivated. Table 2 shows that 99% of respondents love to read text books which is expected, 48% romantic novels, 92% read true life stories, science fiction, newspapers and magazines, 89% read adventure stories, 72% read comics, 71% read Bible/ Christian literature., 44% read Quoran/ Islamic literature, and 77%. This implies that respondents prefer to read their school text books over and above others like true life stories, science fiction, newspapers and magazines. Academic Excellence is not gotten on a Platter of Gold. It requires hard work and deliberate search for knowledge and information. It is all about learning and relearning. It involves seeking for information.
One way to develop and improve academically is to seek and search for information and more information by engaging in consistent reading of all manner of literature.
According to Oyedepo(2008) the first step towards mental excellence is research. In his words "Until you find what you're seeking, search and if you can't find it, re- search. Learning takes place in the mind. The mind is able to acquire and store information, making it available for use when it is required "
Since Reading books, particularly books relating to students' personal challenge can influence or affect them positively or negatively. It follows that students should be encouraged and properly guided to read good literature, particularly reading materials that will help them accomplish their academic goals. Students should be provided with not just academic reading materials but also spiritual books, adventure stories, fiction books, biographies of great men and women who academically excelled against all odds even in other professional fields other books include historical materials, motivational materials etc. In an earlier Master Thesis research in 2004, the researcher conducted an experimental investigation and found that students become highly motivated and pursue academic study with greater vigor than when they were not exposed to reading such motivational materials.
From the above findings, the researcher is recommending the following: (1) that the Government and all other institution responsible for managing Education of younger generations should come together and find a lasting solution to the education sector, conduct research, and prescribe practicable educational policies that will move the nation's education forward. (2) Government should increase the funding of education. (3) Librarians should collaborate with school authorities, counselors and teachers in order to render more effective library services. (4) Librarians should work with school teachers and counsellors to know the reading needs and challenges of students; this will assist in acquiring relevant reading materials in addition to academic books. (5) Book club programmes packaged with giving of awards to best readers and most frequent users of library resources should be encouraged in schools. Finally and (6) Bibliotherapy should be taught as a course or incorporated into an already existing course offered in Nigeria Library Schools. (7) School managers and school librarians should integrate library periods into the school Time Table this will help to inculcate good reading culture in students. (8) Library development fees should be introduced by owners of schools to develop and fund library acquisition; they should also search out donation organizations or agencies who donate books to schools. (9) Nigerian authors should write and publish books that are readers' friendly, especially for the young ones.
Based on the findings of this research, Bibliotherapy should not only be embraced in schools at all levels by way of providing students with good books to read, bibliotherapy should be viewed and adopted as a serious subject of considerable importance by all stake holders in the education sector, including the students themselves, this will go a long way in arresting the persistence mass failure problem and other consequences such as examination malpractices, school dropout etc. Also the rate of crime will be reduced to the barest minimum. Furthermore, the quality of man power in the country will improve by and by. Reading shapes the mind and thinking of readers. It shapes their attitude towards people, towards life and ways of doing things. The implication is that students should be exposed to good reading materials that will help them handle academic challenges.
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JULIE E. ILOGHO*
Centre for Learning Resources
Ota, Ogun State
* firstname.lastname@example.org 0807-622-2087…