Academic journal article
By Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Lin, Mei-Lan; Su, Chia-Kai
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal , Vol. 39, No. 10
In this study we explored the attitudes and motives of business studies students taking examinations for professional certificates, where their participation may have a cognitionoriented motive. The study was divided into 2 phases: in the first phase, a questionnaire survey was used to examine the differences between internal and external encouragement perspectives for those students with and without professional certificates. We found that the intrinsic motivation of students with professional certificates was significantly higher than their extrinsic motivation. In the second phase we examined whether the impact of the external justifications of attitude changes are associated with students' attitudes toward participation in the examination. Multiple regression analyses revealed that reward, satisfaction, effort, responsibility, and commitment were predictive of participants' attitudes.
Keywords: attitude, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, justification, professional certificate.
Obtaining professional certificates has become a trend in business schools and the business community in Taiwan. There are several organizations that award relevant professional certificates, for example, courses of study are available through me Securities and Futures Information Centre, the Life Insurance Association of the Republic of China, the Taiwan Insurance Institute, the Risk Management Society of Taiwan, the Life Insurance Management Institute of the Republic of China, the Non-Life Underwriters' Society of the Republic of China, and the Taiwan Academy of Banking and Finance. When people apply for jobs after graduating from a university, they are usually required to have some relevant certificates. Moreover, as students who have professional certificates constitute the group with the most important indicators for university evaluations by the Ministry of Education, students are being encouraged to obtain professional certificates while they are still in school. From an educational viewpoint, improving student learning attitudes and professional knowledge through examination preparation and understanding the motivations and attitudes of students taking certificate examinations are, therefore, important.
We investigated the internal motivations of students taking these examinations, employing different research methods including a qualitative method, a questionnaire survey, and an experimental method. Our results could be used to provide concrete directions for students when counseling them about certificate examinations. On the whole, our purpose in this research was twofold: (1) to examine both internal and external motivation from a cognitive-oriented motive viewpoint, and identify student motivations for participating in certificate exams; (2) to examine whether cognitive dissonance theory, from the motive viewpoint, is applicable to attitude changes in participating in certificate examinations, while examining the relationship between the impact of external justifications on attitude changes (including rewards, free will, responsibility, commitment, and effort or cost) and student attitudes.
Motivation is a force that directs specific behavioral alternatives, which are suggested when individuals choose to behave in a certain way (Chiang & Jang, 2008). In addition, Amabile (1997) indicated that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation determine what a person is capable of doing within a given domain. Intrinsic motivation is driven by deep interests and involvement in the work, curiosity, enjoyment, or a personal sense of challenge while extrinsic motivation is driven by the desire to attain some goal that is separate from the work itself, such as achieving a promised reward, meeting a deadline, or winning a competition.
According to those holding the cognitive-oriented-motive (COM) viewpoint, people may be subject to many external motivators when they take part in certificate examinations, including compliments from others, threats, money, rewards (Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973), scores, and fame (Deci, 1971; Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991), as well as internal motivators such as a sense of belonging and autonomy (Deci et al. …