Effective Factors in Enhancing School Managers' Job Motivation

Article excerpt

Objective: This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school managers' job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators.

Method: For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity) and its load factor was 0.4 which was high.

Results: The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing managers' job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51%) including 28 indices; social factor (7/9%) including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2%) including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2%) including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8%) including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6%) including 4 indices .

Conclusions: The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of managers' motivation.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, Motivation, Psychology, Schools, Workplace

Iran J Psychiatry 2011; 6: 151-157

Motivation considerably contributes to perceptions, desires, drives, the environment interactions and performance of managers. Motivation is derived from the «Mover» root which means moving. In other words, motivation forces the human, according to his desire or despite his desire, to select a stimulus between different stimuli (1). Motivation can be defined as complex forces, drives, needs, stressful situations or other mechanisms that can be applied in individual activities to set, pursue, and achieve goals (2). Therefore, the first component is related to energy or strengthening the behavior. Peripheral symptoms or signs, memories and emotional responses that will lead the person to perform certain behaviors are of this component. The second component is related to the purpose or goal that conducts or directs a behavior. The third component considers survival and duration of the behavior and causes its continuation. The behavior will continue when environmental

factors, strengthen the direction and intensity of individual's drives and needs (3).

More views on the subject of motivation reflect on the philosophical aspects derived from specific and pervasive patterns that solve the problems of education administrators and school officials. Therefore, understanding motivation and the factors that drive the human resources is one of the most complex areas of psychology, education, and management training (4).

Naeli (5) believes that the basis of motivation in education is in the emotional context of school administrators. Henri Pestalozzi ,a great Swiss trainer in education, believes that basis of an education in a system is due to the schools' managers and principals and believes that managers with high motivation interact with the learners based on mutual respect and affection and seek to understand and satisfy the needs of learners, teachers and school staff.(6)

Maslow, Herzberg, Alderfer, McClelland, Victor Vroom, Adams, and Winer s' research suggest that high motivation of school managers and education administrators result in job satisfaction and motivation of teachers , a more positive attitude of teachers and increase in academic success of students (7).

Motivation is the human movement engine .A motivated person has creativity, symbolic role and innovation , and creates the desire to drive himself and others, making the system dynamic, he is an entrepreneur. …