It is often argued that minimum wage increases can lead to increased inflation. This paper examines the impact of minimum wage increases on inflation in Vietnam during the 19942008 period. Inflation is measured by a monthly overall Consumer Price Index (CPI) and a monthly food CPI. It is found that the minimum wage increases did not increase inflation. Since the minimum wage increases often took place one or two months before the Vietnamese New Year festivals, observed increases in monthly inflation after the minimum wage increases were caused by increased consumption demand during the New Year festivals, not by the minimum wage increases.
Keywords: Minimum wages, inflation, CPI, Vietnam.
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)
Minimum wages are the lowest hourly, daily or monthly wage that a government requires employers to pay to employees. The main argument for minimum wages is to increase the living standards of labourers, especially the poor. In addition, minimum wage increases can have other positive effects such as promoting labours' work effort and productivity, reducing people covered in subsidy programmes, increasing consumption, aggregate demand and generation of multiplier effects (Freeman 1994; Do wrick and Quiggin 2003; Gunderson 2005).
However, minimum wage increases can lead to negative impacts. In the traditional economic theory, firms will respond to an increase in labour cost by reducing demand for labour or increasing the output prices (Hamermesh 1986; Brown 1999). As a result, unemployment and inflation can be increased. Poor labourers, whom governments aim to protect by minimum wages, can be hurt by minimum wage increases.
Although minimum wage increases are expected to increase prices, the magnitude of price increase depends on several factors such as the demand elasticity and competition degree (Aaronson 2001). A strong effect of minimum wages on inflation is not always found in empirical studies. Several studies, for example, Card and Krueger (1995), Aaronson (2001), Macdonald and Arasonson (2000), found that a 10 per cent minimum wage increase leads to around 1-4 per cent increases in prices. However, other studies such as Fry e and Gordon (1981), Sellekaerts (1981), Katz and Krueger (1992), Card and Krueger (1995) found very small or not statistically significant effects of minimum wage increases on prices. Detailed review of studies on the effect of minimum wages on prices can be found in Lemos (2004).
Vietnam has committed itself to a "growth with equity" strategy of development. The country has achieved high economic growth, with an average annual GDP growth rate of around 6 per cent over the past ten years. The poverty rate declined remarkably from 58 per cent to 16 per cent between 1993 and 2006 (World Bank 2008). To increase living standards of labourers, especially the low -wage ones, the government of Vietnam has a policy of minimum wage increases on a regular basis. There have been nine adjustments to the minimum wage since the year 1993. The real minimum wage increased by around 118 per cent during the period 1994-2008. However, minimum wage increases lead to on-going debates about the impacts on inflation in Vietnam. A large number of advocates of the minimum wages including the government argue that reasonable minimum wage increases do not cause high inflation. Instead, increased minimum wages can lead to an increase in consumption, aggregate demand and economic growth, especially in the context of economic slowdown (see, for example, Dan Tri 2009a; Duy Tuan 2009). On the contrary, minimum wage increases are blamed for increased prices (Vneconomy 2003; Dan Tri 2009&; Bao Moi 2009). Especially, there was an increase in the minimum wage in early 2008, then followed by very high inflation in mid-2008. Certainly, high inflation reduces real minimum wages and can decrease the efficiency of the economy.
The arguments on the impact of minimum wage increases on inflation in Vietnam are often made without empirical evidence on impact evaluation of minimum wage increases. Thus, this paper aims to measure the impact of minimum wage increases on inflation in Vietnam. Inflation is measured by the monthly overall Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the monthly food CPI. If a positive impact of the minimum wage increases on inflation is found, the government should reconsider the policy on minimum wage increases or have price-adjusting policies accompanied with minimum wage increases.
The paper is structured into five sections. Section II describes the minimum wage adjustments and inflation in Vietnam. Section III presents the methodology to measure the impact of minimum wage increases on inflation. Next, empirical results on the impact are presented in section IV and section V.
II Minimum Wages and Inflation in Vietnam
II.1 Data Sources
In this study, inflation is measured by the monthly CPI from January 1994 to December 2008. We use both overall and food CPIs as measures of monthly overall and food inflation, respectively. The CPI data are calculated by the Department of Trade and Price, General Statistical Office of Vietnam (GSO). In addition, the paper uses data on monthly changes in the average exchange rate (in terms of the U.S. dollar) and yearly indicators of the Vietnamese economy such as GDP, population, money supply, and state revenue.
II.2 Minimum Wages
In Vietnam, the minimum wage is defined as the lowest monthly wage for a simple worker in normal working conditions (Vu Thieu 2006). The minimum wage is required to ensure the basic needs of the labourers and dependants in their family. Economic growth and price inflation require the adjustment of minimum wages. The Labour Law of Vietnam also stipulates that the government must adjust the minimum wage when there is a change in prices of commodities and services. In addition, minimum wage adjustments are also based on payment capacity of the State budget, since all the wages of all workers in the State sector are tied to the level of the minimum wage.
Since the year 1993, there have been nine adjustments to the minimum monthly wage in Vietnam. All of these adjustments are increases in the minimum wage. It should be noted that Vietnam has only minimum monthly wage, not minimum daily or hourly wage. The timing and the level of the minimum wage after adjustment are presented in Figure 1. In addition to the nominal minimum wages, the figure also presents the real minimum wages in terms of the 1994 price (deflated by the CPI). It shows that the nominal minimum wage increased by 44-2 per cent from VND120,000 to VND650,000 during the period 1994-2009. However, the real minimum wage just increased by 118 per cent from VND 120,000 to VND262,000. The annual growth rate of real minimum wages is estimated at around 5 per cent which is lower than the average annual GDP growth rate of 7.5 per cent. In the most recent minimum wage adjustment in May 2009, although the nominal minimum wage was increased by 20 per cent from VND540,000 to VND650,000, the real one was reduced from VND270,000 to VND262,000 due to high inflation in 2008.
There are two points on minimum wages that should be noted. Firs Uy, the minimum wages presented in Figure 1 are applied for the governmental sector and the domestic sector. Minimum wages applied for the foreign sector including foreign joint- venture enterprises, foreign-invested enterpri ses, international individuals, institutions and organizations are higher. Secondly, before 2008 there was only one domestic minimum wage throughout the country. From January 2008, there are different regional minimum wages for different regions.1 Table 1 presents the regional minimum wage for the foreign and domestic sectors.
II.3 Inflation Trend
As mentioned, inflation is measured by the monthly overall CPI and food CPI. In Vietnam, the monthly CPI is defined as an index that measures the percentage rate at which the prices of consumer goods and services are changing from month to month. The compilation of price statistics has been conducted in Vietnam by the General Statistical Office since 1956. The CPI is constructed at three levels: provincial level, regional level and the whole country. At each level, the CPI index is estimated for rural and urban areas. The CPI is estimated using the Laspeyres formula.2
Among the consumption basket that is used to calculate the CPI, items of food account for a large proportion. However, as the living standard increases, the share of food in the consumption basket tends to go down. For example, the weight of food in the consumption basket decreased from 60.9 per cent in 1995 to 47.9 per cent in 2000.
Figure 2 graphs the monthly overall CPI and the monthly food CPI, and the months with minimum wage increases (the vertical lines) during the period 1994-2008. Except for a few months, the CPIs often fluctuated between 98 per cent and 106 per cent. The overall CPI and the food CPI were quite close and had similar trend. This is because food accounts for nearly 50 per cent of items in the overall consumption basket that is used to estimate the overall CPI. However, the food CPI had slightly larger fluctuation than the overall CPI during the period 1994-2008.
From Figure 2, it seems that the CPIs tend to increase after the minimum wage increases. However, since the minimum wage increases often take place in January, the time after the minimum wage increases often coincides with the New Year festival in Vietnam. As known, people tend to spend more on consumption and services during the New Year festival, and the prices are more likely to rise during this festival; after that, the CPIs tend to decrease.
Figure 3 presents the average CPIs by months over the period 1994-2008. As expected, the overall CPI was highest in January and February, at 101.3 per cent and 102.4 per cent, respectively. The food CPI was 101.6 per cent and 103.6 per cent in January and February, respectively. After the New Year festivals, both the overall and food CPIs decreased to the lowest level, at around 99.9 per cent in March.
Since the CPIs seem to have a seasonal trend, we calculate the seasonal difference of the CPIs with the seasonal period of twelve months. Figure 4 presents these seasonal differences of the monthly overall CPI and food CPI, and the months with minimum wage increases (the vertical lines) during the period 1994-2008. Now, there is no clear evidence that the monthly CPIs increase after the minimum wage increases.
Figure 5 examines the annual inflation rate and annual growth rate of several economic indicators during the period 1994-2008. In general, there is no clear relation between inflation and other economic indictors. As can be seen, the inflation rate was below 10 per cent during the period 1996-2006. There was deflation in years 2000 and 2001. However, inflation was very high in 2007 and 2008, at 13 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively. Food inflation was even higher, at 14 per cent and 29 per cent in 2007 and 2008, respectively. To control inflation, the government doubled the interest rate of commercial banks to reduce the money supply in 2008. As a result, the real money supply was reduced by nearly 5 per cent in 2008. Because of high inflation, the growth of real State revenue was negative in 2007 and barely positive in 2008.
Figure 5 also shows that the growth of real money supply was much higher than the growth of real GDP The government increased the money supply mainly by printing more money Although increased money supply is often blamed for high inflation in Vietnam (especially by mass media, for example, Nguyen 2007; Minh 2008), there is not a strong correlation between money supply and inflation. For example, the money supply was very high during 1998-2000, but the inflation rate was very low during this period.
III. Method of Impact Estimation
There is a large amount of literature on inflation. In economic textbooks, determinants of inflation can be increases in input costs and demands, and excess in money supply (Mankiw 2000). Any gap between aggregate demand and aggregate supply of an economy can lead to inflation. In the costpush theory inflation, higher production cost can result in a higher price. For the whole economy, demand is less elastic and supply reduction can lead to excess demand and increased price (Castle 2003). The demand-pull inflation theory argues that inflation can happen if demand is much higher than supply. According to monetarists, inflation is essentially a monetary phenomenon (Friedman 1963). If the aggregate demand and supply are unchanged, an additional increase in the money supply can cause inflation. Therefore, all variables which can increase aggregate demand, supply and the money supply substantially can cause inflation. In addition, the theory of adaptive expectation inflation assumes that people's expectation of future inflation which depends on current inflation can also affect inflation. It means that the current inflation can depend on the past inflation (Mankiw 2000).
In our study, a minimum wage increase can be regarded as an increase in industry-wide costs which can result in higher inflation. Empirical studies try to model the determinants of inflation in both developed and developing countries (for example, Fahrer and Myatt 1991; Adedeji and Liu 2005; Feridun and Okhari 2006; Adedeji and William 2004). To estimate the impact of the minimum wage increases in Vietnam, we rely on time-series regressions of the monthly CPIs on variables indicating minimum wages increases and other explanatory variables as follows:3
where yt is dependent variable, i.e., the monthly overall CPI and food CPI, at time i, yt_g is g-lagged dependent variable; D1 is the dummy variables indicating months when there are minimum wage increases; Dt_k are lagged variables; and Dt+k are leaded variables; X is a vector of control variables; M is a vector of dummy variables indicating months; and et are unobserved variables. We control lagged CPIs as explanatory variables since, as mentioned, the current inflation can depend on the past inflation.
The reason for using the lagged and leaded variables is that the minimum wage increases can have leaded or lagged effects on the CPIs, i.e. the CPIs can be changed before and after the time of the minimum wage increases. It is possible that people predict an increase in prices due to an increase in the minimum wage and they can increase consumption before the minimum wage increase to avoid rising prices. It means that increased minimum wages might have leaded effects on the CPIs.
The short-run effect is measured by ßt , and the long-run effect is estimated by ...
Similar to empirical studies on the determinants of inflation (e.g., Fahrer and Myatt 1991; Adedeji and Liu 2005; Feridun and Okhari 2006; Adedeji and William 2004), other independent variables, Xh are included in equation (1) to mitigate of the endogeneity problem. If the minimum wage increases are correlated with unobserved variables, estimation of the minimum wage increases will be biased (for example, see Moffitt 1999, and Wooldridge 2002). We should control all variables which affect both the minimum wage increases and the CPIs. It is said that the Government of Vietnam often considers economic growth, past inflation and State budget when deciding minimum wage increases (Tran et al. 2006). The proxies for these factors are annual growth of real GDP, inflation rate in the last period, and annual growth of real State budget. Since inflation can depend on the quantity of money, we also control annual growth of real money supply (Ml). This is an important variable and ideally, monthly or quarterly data on money supply are available. However, in this study we only have data on annual money supply.
The monthly price index of U.S. dollar is also included. Dummy variables indicating months are controlled to correct seasonality of the CPIs. It should be noted that all of these explanatory variables can be proxies for determinants of inflation such as cost-push and demand-pull factors, money excess and past inflation.
A problem in the variable of minimum wage increases is that there are only eight months with minimum wage increases. It means that we have a small number of observations with minimum wage increases. In addition to the definition of minimum wage variable in equation (1), we also define the minimum wage variable as several months around the month when the minimum wage increases take place. More specifically, three additional minimum wage variables are defined as follows: the first is a dummy variable indicating duration between the month with minimum wage increases and two months later; the second is a dummy variable indicating duration between the month with minimum wage increases and seven months later; the third is a dummy variable indicating a two-month window around the month with minimum wage increases. In other words, these defined variables are used to measure long-run impact of minimum wage increases on the average CPI of several months. The new variables denoting minimum wage increases are also binary, but these variables have more observations with value equal to one. Equation (1) becomes:
where D, is the variable indicating a window of months around that date of the minimum wage increases. There is no lag or lead variable of D1.
IV. Empirical Results
This section discusses the results from regressions of the overall CPI and food CPI on minimum wage increases and control variables. Before running regression of the CPIs, we test whether the CPIs follow a unit-root process. If the CPIs follow a unit-root or non- stationary process, asymptotic tests of the standard regressions can not be used. Table A.l in Appendix presents results from the Dickey-Fuller tests. The tests show the hypothesis on unit-root process of the CPIs is strongly rejected.
The regressions of overall CPI are presented in Tables A. 2 and A. 4, and regressions of the food CPI are presented in Tables A. 5 and A. 6. To examine the sensitivity of the impact estimates, we used different regression models with different sets of minimum wage variables and control variables. In Models 1, 2, and 3, we run Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) regressions in which the errors are assumed to follow a firstorder autoregressive, with estimated by OLS regression. We do not run Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions for Models 1, 2, and 3 since tests of autocorrelation (the Durbin's alternative test and the Breusch-Godfrey test) strongly reject the hypothesis of no first-order autocorrelation of the error term. In Models 4 to 9, we include the lagged variables of CPIs to reflect the theory of adaptive expectation inflation. The number of lagged variables varies across different models. In addition, once the lagged variables of CPIs are controlled, the hypothesis of no autocorrelation of the error term is not rejected.
Table A. 2 shows that the overall CPI or overall inflation decreased in the months with minimum wage increases. The CPI tended to decrease by about 0.4 percentage points in these months. However, the estimates are only statistically significant at the 10 per cent level in some models. The lag effects of the minimum wage increases on the CPI are not statistically significant. Estimates of the long-run effects are quite small and not statistically significant.
The negative sign of the minimum wage increases is difficult to interpret. A possible story to explain this negative sign is that people predict an increase in prices due to minimum wage increases, and this prediction can cause inflation before the minimum wage increases actually occurs. t When the higher minimum wages come into effect, though, people find that prices have not risen as much as they expect, so they moderate their own prices.
Multicollinearity arises when explanatory variables are highly correlated with each other. Multicollinearity does not affect the unbiasedness of estimators but it can increase the standard error of estimators. In our models, there are lagged and lead variables which can be correlated. To test multicollinearity, we compute the variance inflation factor (VIF) of explanatory variables.4 As a rule of thumb, a variable having VIF greater than 10 indicates high collinearity between this variable and other explanatory variables. Table A.3 in Appendix presents estimates of VIF in large models (Models 6 to 9). It shows that the VIF average of the explanatory variables is quite small, around 2 to 3. No variable has a VIF value above 5. It means a low multicollinearity among explanatory variables in our models.
As mentioned in section III, we use also variables of duration around the minimum wage increases in the regressions. Table A.4 shows that the variables of minimum wage increases are very small and not statistically significant.
In these regressions, control variables have expected signs. For example, the previous month CPI is positively correlated with the current-month CPI. The CPI is highest in January and February. As mentioned, Vietnamese New Year festival often takes place in these months, and prices are increased since people tend to increase consumption in the festival. Other economic indicators such as growth of GDP, money supply and State revenue have positive coefficients, but the coefficients are not statistically significant. This can be because the annual indicators can not capture the fluctuation of monthly prices. As mentioned, ideally, we should use monthly or quarterly explanatory variables. However, data on these variables are not available in Vietnam.
Similarly, evidence of increased food CPI is not found. Table A. 5 shows that the food CPI decreased by around 0.2 percentage points in the month with minimum wage increases. The longrun effects of minimum wage increases on the food CPI are also negative. However, these estimates are not statistically significant. Table A. 6 also shows similar trend of effects on the food CPI. The point estimates of effect are negative, but not statistically significant.
It is often argued that minimum wage increases can lead to increased inflation. In Vietnam, there have been nine increases of the minimum wage since the year 1993. The real minimum wage increased by around 118 per cent during the period 1994-2009. The CPI increased by 245 per cent during this period. Increased minimum wages are sometimes to blame for an increase in the prices of commodities and services in Vietnam. Yet, there has been no quantitative analysis of the impact of minimum wage increases on inflation in Vietnam. This paper is the first attempt to examine the impact of the minimum wage increases on inflation during the period 1994-2008 using OLS regressions. Inflation is measured by the monthly overall CPI and monthly food CPI. It is found that the minimum wage increases did not increase the overall and food CPIs. Instead, the point estimates of both short-run and long-run effects of the minimum wage increases on these CPIs are negative. However, these estimates are not statistically significant at the 5 per cent level. It should be noted that the minimum wage increases often took place one or two months before the Vietnamese New Year festivals. Thus, observed increases in monthly inflation after the minimum wage increases resulted from increased consumption demand during the New Year festivals, not from the minimum wage increases.
There are two possible explanations for insignificant impacts of minimum wage increases on inflation. Firs Uy, the number of labourers who are affected by minimum wage increases might be small. According to Nguyen (2009), there are around 10 per cent of workers who have low -wage and can be affected by minimum wage increases. In addition, around 60 per cent of labourers are self-employed and working for other households. These groups are not influenced by minimum wage increases. Secondly, the number of enterprises affected by minimum wage increases, and under market competition these enterprises are unable to pass through to prices the higher costs due minimum wage increases. It implies that the production unit cost as well as the aggregate demand is not increased. As a result, there are no significant impacts of minimum wage increases on inflation. Analysis of channels through which the minimum wage increases impinge on inflation requires different data sets such as enterprise surveys and household surveys, thus it is beyond the scope of the paper, but certainly important for future research.
There are two main policy implications for Vietnam deriving from this study. Firstly, the minimum wages should be increased to compensate wage workers for real- wage reduction caused by inflation in Vietnam. The annual growth rate of real minimum wages is still lower than that of GDP In the most recent increase of the minimum wage in May 2009, although the nominal minimum wage increased by 20 per cent, the real one decreased by 3 per cent (due to high inflation in 2008). Secondly, previous increases in minimum wages are found not to lead to high inflation. So a reasonable increase in minimum wages is a result of inflation, not a cause of inflation.
1. For more details, see Government of Vietnam (2007), Government of Vietnam (2008a), Government of Vietnam (2008b).
2. The Laspeyres formula is expressed as follows:
where p^sup 0^^sub i^ and p^sup 1^^sub i^ are the prices of item (good or service) i in the periods 0 and 1 (the base and current periods), respectively; and q^sup 0^^sub i^ is the quantity of the item i in the base period.
3. An advantage of regression method using national time-series data is that it accounts for all steps through which minimum wage increases impact inflation. In other words, both direct and indirect effects of the minimum wage increased are included in the regressions (Lemos 2004).
4. The variance inflation factor is calculated as follows:
where R^sup 2^^sub j^ is the R- squared of the regression of the i-th explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables. We can also use Tolerance, defined as 1/VIF, to check on the degree of collinearity. A tolerance value below than 0.1 is comparable to a VIF of 10.
Aaronson, D. "Price Pass- through and the Minimum Wage". Review of Economics and Statistics 83, no. 1 (2001): 158-69.
Adedeji, O. and O. William. "Inflation Dynamics in the Dominican Republic". IMF Working Paper No. WP/04/29. 2004.
Adedeji, O. and O. Liu. "Determinants of Inflation in the Islamic Republic of Iran - A Macroeconomic Analysis". IMF Working Paper No. WP/00/127. 2005.
Bao Moi. ... 8 April 2009.
Brown, C. "Minimum Wages, Employment and the Distribution of Income". In Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 3, edited by O. Ashenfelter and D. Card, pp. 2101-63. Elsevier Science, 1999.
Card, D. E. and A. Krueger. Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Castle, J. "Measuring Excess Demand and Its impact on Inflation". Working Paper, Nuffield College and Oxford University, 2003.
Dan Tri. ... giá". Báo Dân Trí, ngày 8 April 2009a.
_____. ... Báo Dân Trí, ngày 8/4/20096.
Dowrick, S. and J. Quiggin. "A Survey of the Literature on Minimum Wage". Unpublished manuscript, Australian National University, 2003.
Duy Tuan. ... VTC News, ngày 8 April 2009.
Fahrer, J. and J. Myatt. "Inflation in Australia: Causes, Inertia And Policy". Research Discussion Paper No. 9105, Economic Research Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, 1991.
Feridun. M. and H. Okhari. "Forecasting Inflation through Econometric Models: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Data". DoqQ: Universitesi Dergisi 7, no. 1 (2006): 39-47.
Freeman, R. B. "Minimum Wages - Again!". International Journal of Manpower 15, no. 2 (1994): 8-25.
Friedman, M. Inflation: Causes and Consequences. New York: Asia Publishing House, 1963.
Frye, J. and R. J. Gordon. "Government Intervention in the Inflation Process: The Econometrics of ' Self-inflicted Wounds' ". American Economic Review 71 (1981): 288-94.
Government of Vietnam. "Government Decree on Regional Minimum Wage for Labor in Enterprises, Collective, Farm, Households and other Organizations in Vietnam, No. 167/2007/ ND-CP dated on November 16, 2007". 2007.
_____. "Government Decree on Regional Minimum Wage for Labor in Enterprises, Collective, Farm, Households and other Organizations in Vietnam, No. 11 0/2008/ ND-CP dated on October 10, 2008". 2008a.
_____. "Decree on Regional Minimum Wage for Employees in Foreign- Invested Enterprises, Foreign Institutions and International Individuals and Organisations in Vietnam, No. 111/2008/ND-CP dated on October 10, 2008". 20086.
Gunderson, M. "Minimum Wages In Canada: Theory, Evidence And Policy". Federal Labour Standards Review Commission, Minimum Wage No. 512, 2005.
Hamermesh, D. "The demand for labor in the long run". In Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 1, edited by O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard, pp. 429-71. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986.
Katz, L. F. and A. B. Krueger. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast- Food Industry". Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46 (1992): 6-21.
Lemos, S. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Prices". Discussion Paper No. 1072. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), 2004.
Mankiw, G. Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publisher, 2000.
Minh, H. "High Inflation Due to Money Supply". Newspaper VnEconomy, on 27 February 2008 (in Vietnamese). Available at
Macdonald, J. and D. Aaronson. "How Do Retail Prices React to Minimum Wage Increases?". Working Paper 200020, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2000.
Moffitt, R. "Program Evaluation with Nonexperi mental Data". Evaluation Review 15, no. 3 (1991): 291-314.
Nguyen, X. T. "A Reason for High Inflation in 2007". Newspaper VietNamNet on 28 December 2007 (in Vietnamese). Available at
Nguyen, V C. "The Impact of Minimum Wage Increase on Employment, Wages and Expenditures of Workers: Evidence from Vietnam". Research report for Ministry of Labor, Invalid, and Social Affairs of Vietnam, 2009.
Sellekaerts, B. "Impact of Minimum Wage Legislation on Wage and Price Inflation". Report of the Minimum Wage Paper Commission 6 (1981): 1-17.
Tran, T. H., T. Tran, D. Le, and H. Nguyen. "Determination of Minimum Wages in Market Economy in Vietnam". Report for Ministry of Labor, Invalid, and Social Affairs of Vietnam, 2006.
Vneconomy. "Increased minimum wage can increase prices slightly". Vietnam Economy Newspapers, 16 February 2003.
Vu Thieu. "Minimum wage in the world and lesion learned for Vietnam". Report prepared for Ministry of Labor, Invalid and Social Affairs, 2006.
Wooldridge, J. M. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
World Bank. Vietnam Development Report 2008: Social Protection. World Bank, 2008.
Nguyen Viet Cuong is Research Fellow at Indochina Research and Consulting, Hanoi, Vietnam.…