Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students*

Article excerpt

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping anc achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from U to 20 IM = 16.08], adolescence students attending different departments of the high school in Denizli participated in the study as subjects. The relationship between negative automatic thoughts and intrinsic achievement motivation was fully mediated by learning goal orientation. However, the relationship between negative automatic thoughts and intrinsic achievement motivation was partially mediated by self-handicapping. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that self-handicapping and learning and performance goal orientations variables did not moderate the relationship between negative automatic thoughts and intrinsic achievement motivation.

Key Words

Negative Automatic Thoughts, Self Handicapping, Achievement Goal Orientation, Intrinsic Motivation Adolescent, High School Students

Achievement motivation is an evaluation of the individual of his performance as success or failure relating to the perfection standards in case of a competitive context about the task (Weiner, 1972). In achievement motivation theory, McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell (1953) posit that in a competitive environment and in a situation of achieving a certain task, people will behave according to two motives defined as avoidance failure motivation and achievement motivation. Intrinsic motivation is defined as action and energy which enable individuals' behaviors to be inclined to internal target behavior instead of external factors (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Individuals with intrinsic motivation study to learn and want success as they get pleasure from it. Individuals having extrinsic motivation want success to get a prize or to avoid being punished (Steinberg, 2007). Furthermore, students' achievement reasons are another important problem domain apart from some factors determining the students' achievement motivation in the class. Students set goals aimed at wishing lecture success (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). They may aim to show offothers learning or performance. In other words, they move according to one of the two different targets which are defined as learning oriented or performance oriented. Goal orientation (Aim Style) is to make clear individual's tendency in order to set him goals and make plans (Malouffet al., 1990). Learning oriented individuals try to achieve the tasks to be fulfilled to have interest and ability. However; performance oriented people want to be successful in order to prove the capabilities for the tasks to be accomplished and demonstrate how successful they are. The basic aim of the people who have one of the two target orientations is to do the task to be accomplished (Elliot, 1999). In a study done by Steele-Johnson, Beauregard, Hoover and Schmidt (2000), they found out that students finding the task appropriate are learning oriented and these students have high intrinsic motivation. In the same study, no meaningful correlation was found between being performance oriented and intrinsic motivation. In some of the similar studies, there is a positive correlation between intrinsic motivation and learning oriented and a negative correlation between intrinsic motivation and performance orientation (Colquitt & Simmering, 1998; Elliot & Church, 1997).

As well as the researchers' concern for the achievement motivation, they kept an interest in the studies related to the factors preventing the motivation. Intrinsic achievement motivation is a product of cognitive and emotional processes. That is to say, individual is motivated by considering the advantages. However, some individuals could be believed in the case of having negative beliefs that they will not succeed. These individuals have negative automatic thoughts. …