This study examined whether alcohol outlet density is associated with male physical and sexual victimization by a female partner. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). A total of 3,179 young adult men identified a current heterosexual relationship and had complete intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization data. Almost 16% of this sample reported being the victim of physical only IPV in their relationship over the previous 12 months; an additional 6.4% were victims of sexual only or sexual and physical IPV. Multivariate analyses indicated high alcohol outlet density was associated with greater odds of experiencing physical IPV only (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07). Heavy drinkers experienced increased odds of physical and sexual IPV victimization. Alcohol outlet density should be addressed in prevention efforts.
Keywords: intimate partner violence; neighborhoods; young adulthood; drinking; alcohol use; male victimization
The association of alcohol use with intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented in the research literature (Caetano, Vaeth, & Ramisetty-Mikler, 2008; Cunradi, Caetano, & Schafer, 2002a; Lipsky, Caetano, Field, & Bazargan, 2005; Lipsky, Caetano, Field, & Larkin, 2005). In addition, there is a strong evidence linking alcohol outlet density with increased alcohol consumption as well as criminal violence, but there are far fewer studies linking outlet density to IPV (Chen, Grube, & Gruenewald, 2010; Cunradi, Mair, Ponicki, & Remer, 2011; Gorman, Labouvie, Speer, & Subaiya, 1998; Livingston, 2010; McKinney, Caetano, Harris, & Ebama, 2009; Treno, Ponicki, Remer, & Gruenewald, 2008). Based on the important association between alcohol consumption and IPV, along with the association between alcohol outlet density and increased drinking and criminal behavior, it stands to reason that alcohol outlet density influences IPV as well, although the path through which density influences IPV is not entirely clear. There is also little research examining correlates of IPV victimization among males despite research suggesting that male victims may well experience psychological consequences resulting from IPV similar to females (Chan, Straus, Brownridge, Tiwari, & Leung, 2008; Coker et al., 2002; Coker, Weston, Creson, Justice, & Blakeney, 2005; Fletcher, 2010; Hines, Brown, & Dunning, 2007; Hines & Malley-Morrison, 2001; Randle & Graham, 2011).
Cunradi (2010) recommended in her recent article exploring the research gaps that IPV research should attempt to understand the mechanisms through which outlet density and IPV are associated. Therefore, given a dearth of studies examining the link between alcohol outlet density and IPV and a lack of studies examining factors associated with male victimization, this study examines the associations between alcohol outlet density, drinking patterns, and male IPV victimization by a female partner.
ALCOHOL USE AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE VICTIMIZATION AMONG MALES
The association between alcohol use and male perpetration of IPV has been well documented, and to a lesser extent, it has also been documented among female perpetrators and couples experiencing bidirectional or mutual IPV (Caetano, Ramisetty-Mikler, & Field, 2005; Caetano, Ramisetty-Mikler, & Harris, 2008; Cunradi, Caetano, Clark, & Schafer, 1999; Foran & O'Leary, 2008; McKinney, Caetano, Rodriguez, & Okoro, 2010; Melander, Noel, & Tyler, 2010; Peek-Asa et al., 2005; Thompson & Kingree, 2006). Given the well-documented association between alcohol use by females and their risk for IPV victimization, several recent studies have also examined the extent to which male drinking is associated with victimization of males by their female partners (Caetano, Field, Ramisetty-Mikler, & McGrath, 2005; Cunradi, 2007, 2009; Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000; Foran & …