Specific Influences of Job Satisfaction and Work Characteristics on the Intention to Quit: Results of Different Studies

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Summary, Zusammenfassung

The effects of job satisfaction on the intention to quit are often measured with global measurements, therefore results often show weak effects. The cybernetic model of job satisfaction of Jimenez looks on job satisfaction as a process in time: People with higher personal aspirations and higher dissatisfaction should be found in groups with higher intention to quit. In two independent studies (N=987 and N=993) the intention to quit was measured with three items and job satisfaction was measured with the Profile Analysis of Job Satisfaction by Jimenez. Results show highly significant differences in all dimensions of job satisfaction, discriminant analyses show consistently important facets of job satisfaction which split up the groups by intention to quit.

Key words: job satisfaction, career change, intention to quit, cybernetics, profiles measurement, turnover, commitment

Spezifische Einflusse der Arbeitszufriedenheit and Arbeitscharakteristica auf die Absicht zu wechseln: Ergebnisse verschiedener Studien

Die Effekte von Arbeitszufriedenheit auf die Wechselbereitschaft warden oft mit globalen Messinstrumenten erfasst, sodass sich nur schwache Effekte zeigten. Das kybernetische Modell der Arbeitszufriedenheit von Jimenez betrachtet Arbeitszufriedenheit als Prozess in der Zeit: Personen mit hoheren personlichen Erwartungen and hoherer Unzufriedenheit sollten eher in Gruppen mit hoherer Wechselbereitschaft gefunden werden. In zwei unabhangigen Studien (N=987 and N=993) wurde die Wechselbereitschaft mit drei Items and die Arbeitszufriedenheit mit der Profilanalyse der Arbeitszufriedenheit mit der Profilanalyse der Arbeitszufriedenheit von Jimenez gemessen. Die Ergebnisse zeigten hochsignifikante Unterschiede in allen Dimensionen der Arbeitszufriedenheit, Diskriminanzanalysen zeigten konsistent wichtige Facetten der Arbeitszufriedenheit, die eine gate Differenzierung zwischen den Gruppen unterschiedlicher Wechselbereitschaft erlauben.

Schlusselworter: Arbeitszufriedenheit, Karrierewechsel, Wechselbereitschaft, Kybernetic, Profilmessung, Fluktuation, Bindung

"The real question becomes how do we keep and more importantly recommit and reenergize the key players in the organization?" (Practitioner in HR, cited by Judge & Church, 2000)

The market for employees has been changing dramatically within the last years, especially for IT and technical professionals. The need for these people seemed to be endless in 2000, the "green card" was invented and up to 100,000 IT professionals were claimed to be needed, one year later it seemed to be the opposite (Schwan, 2001). Nevertheless the core question stays the same: How should people be held within the company, what possibilities do organizations have to "bind" their employees? Recruiting and hiring mean high costs and time for the human resource department, training is the next important point (Spector, 2000).

The question then is, what can organizations do, or in other words, what are the effects influencing turnover? Regarding intention to quit job satisfaction is one of the central variables often brought into focus in research (Semmer et al., 1996; Spector 2000), as job dissatisfaction can lead to intention to quit and this leads to turnover. E.g. Blau (1993), Carsten and Spector (1987) found that job satisfaction and intention of quitting correlate quite well. The prediction of turnover itself is more directly related with intention to quit than with job satisfaction, correlations found are e.g. .38 (Carsten and Spector, 1987) up to .59 (Semmer et al., 1996). Moderating effects to real turnover are the job situation, the economic situation, availability of alternatives (Spector, 2000).

Research on turnover often looks on job satisfaction in a very simple way and measurements for job satisfaction use global results where faceted measures are better for predicting outcomes (Judge & Church, 2000). …