Academic journal article
By Kouchaksaraei, Mehrzad Javadi; Bustami, Mohammad Reevany
Canadian Social Science , Vol. 8, No. 6
Rent state is one of the theories that many analysts and researchers working on matters regarding developing countries have used to justify the lack of political and economical development in countries relying on revenues obtained from external resources called rent. Specifically, this theory concerns with the states relying heavily on godsend revenues: revenues generally obtained from natural and underground resources for instance, oil. According to the theory, rent states tend to exhibit qualities of self-sufficiency by using the revenues accrued from these natural sources to stabilize themselves and their intimate companions in the political, economic and other areas of cooperation. In this paper, various works of writers and theorists of rent state have been analyzed with specific emphasis on the notion that the structure of rent governments is an important obstacle to the formation of a democratic and politically developed society. The paper further emphasizes that such conditions eventually result in the development of non-democratic and authoritative regimes in those countries regardless of the rent resource being employed. Consequently, the probability of political and economic corruption, and the jeopardizing of civil society organizations increases beyond limit, to a large extent, in order to preserve individual authority and control of the god-given wealth.
Key Words: State; Rent states; Democracy
Nowadays, one of the most important ideals of good governance is the proximity of the ruling system to the principles of democracy and respect for the rights of every individual of society. Therefore, the recognition of the basic democratic principles and the study of preventive factors can help a great deal to achieve these goals i.e. democratic society. In the case of rent states however, the state's use of revenues from natural sources (like oil) and their self-sufficiency from society has become one of the most important obstacles which keep at a distance strives towards the ideals of democracy. In other words, given the fact that rent states are able to finance state expenditures without having to rely on tax revenues or other domestic production sectors of the economy, the state tends to regard itself as not being accountable to society and hence puts no serious programs in place for political development. Thus studying the nature of rent states in relation to the adoption of democratic principles, and the discovery of existing relationships between these two is one of the most important matters for achieving a developed society backed by solid ideals of democracy and a well-informed civil society in this respect. In this study, the formation of rent states and their effect on such variables as the generated revenues on the one hand, and the level of political and social participation of society on the other are discussed.
The study is composed of two variables: the rent state and its structure being the independent variable, while democracy besides political development in the frame of civil society being the dependent variable.
1. SOME THÉORIES ABOUT DEMOCRACY
Democracy is a shape of government in which people have equal statues in the decisions that influence their lives. Citizens allow participating equally directly or through elected representatives - in the proposal to be created of laws with development. It surrounds economic culture and social conditions that permit the equal practice and free of political self-determination (Liddell). Karl Popper mentioned democracy in contrast with tyranny or dictatorship, therefore focusing on opportunities for the citizens to manage their leaders and to expel them without the need for a rebellion (Jarvie, 2006).
There are several variants of democracy, but tow forms are so important that each of them have concern how the people executes its will. Direct democracy is one form of democracy which society have and active participation in the decision making of the administration. …