Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine faculty satisfaction and the relationships among selected elements of African American women nurse faculty productivity at two types of institutions: predominantly white (PWCUs) and historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Oganizational Culture Theory was used as the conceptual framework to provide the basis to explore the extent of productivity and levels of satisfaction among the study participants. Satisfaction was measured using a six-point Likert attitudinal scale. Scholarly Productivity was measured as the extent of published/submitted works (authorship), number and dollar amounts of grant submissions (grantsmanship) and elected/appointed positions held in professional organizations (leadership). Consistent with previous research studies of minority faculty in other disciplines, the current study found that the majority, of African American women nurse faculty tended not to hold senior professorial rank, administrative positions, or tenure status. When comparisons were made between HBCU and PWCU faculty, however, a higher percentage of HBCU faculty reported holding deanships or program coordinator positions and, on average, had slightly larger dollar amounts for funded grant awards and held significantly more leadership positions in professional nursing organizations.
The aggregated data findings of this study did not support a strong relationship between selected elements of satisfaction with the academic institution's organizational culture and the scholarly productivity of African American women nurse faculty teaching at HBCUs and PWCUs. However, when the data were disaggregated by type school, moderately significant differences between HBCU and PWCU faculty were found, such that along several dimensions of the constructs of organizational culture the levels of dissatisfaction among PWCU faculty significantly skewed the overall data findings. In general, while PWCU faculty demonstrated higher levels of authorship, reported larger
salaries, and held more tenured positions when compared with HBCU faculty, PWCU respondents tended to be significantly less satisfied with the leadership, environment, and socialization processes of their respective collegiate schools of nursing than were their HBCU counterparts. Among HBCU faculty the extent of productivity positively correlated with satisfaction for three of the six dimensions of organizational culture.
Keywords: Productivity, Satisfaction, African American, Minority, Women, Faculty, Organizational Culture
The underrepresentation of minority faculty and their scholarly productivity has been a long-standing problem in the academy. Over the past two decades research initiatives have sought to investigate the derivation of the problem both outside of (Harris, 1995; Kulis, 1992; Palepu, Carr, Friedman, Ash, et al, 2000; Thomas & Asunka, 1995; Tobin, 1981; Trower & Chait, 2002; Wong, Bigby, Kleinpeter, Mitchell, et al. 2001) and within the discipline of nursing (Buerhaus & Auerbach, 1999; Davidhizar & Giger, 1999; Giger, Fishman, Johnson, Davidhizer,et al 1992; Giger,Johnson, Davidhizer, & Fishman, 1993; McNeal, 2000). While African American nurse faculty constitute nearly 6% of the nursing professoriate, fewer than 900 persons comprise this aggregate, (Louden, 1996) producing a yield of less than one faculty member per school of nursing, if the population were evenly distributed. Further, among the nations more than 1500 schools of nursing, less than 30 nursing programs are located on the campuses of historically black colleges and universities (Carnegie, 1995), where nearly half of all minority faculty are employed (Trower & Chait, 2002; USDOE, 1996).
While there has been an increase in the overall numbers of minority faculty teaching at the nation's institutions of higher education, the greatest percent increase has been noted among Asian American faculty, from 2.2% in 1975 to 4.5% in 1997. Unfortunately during that same time period the growth of African American faculty has remained relatively stagnant, 4.4% in 1975 to Solo in 1997. Further, the proportion of black faculty at predominantly white colleges and universities has remained at 2.3% since 1979. Despite the fact that minorities earned 16% of the master's degrees and 18.6% of the doctorates in 2000, as faculty they remain less likely to be tenured, and more likely to hold lower professorial rank and to teach at less prestigious institutions than their majority counterparts (Trower & Chait, 2002).
Gender issues also remain of significant concern across all academic disciplines, even after race is factored out of the equation. The apparent overall lack of success of the majority of academic women is evidenced by their lesser professorial ranking, lower salary earnings, non-tenured positions, and less prestigious faculty appointments when compared with the performance of male faculty members (Trower & Chait, 2002). The common concerns of both women and minorities include their limited opportunities to serve in leadership positions, excessive workload in the form of committee assignments, trivialized or discounted research initiatives, and lack of mentorship. Resultantly, these two cohorts tend to be less satisfied in the academic workplace and often leave academe during the seven-year probationary period prior to tenure review (Trower & Chait, 2002). It is not surprising then that by virtue of their dual classification as women and minorities, African American female nurse faculty are at an even greater risk for dissatisfaction and poor productivity.
The aim of this study was to examine faculty satisfaction and the relationships among selected aspects of African American women nurse faculty productivity at two types of institutions: predominantly white (PWCUs) and historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Research has shown that organizational culture significantly affects institutional effectiveness and faculty performance. While the organizational culture of the academy is guided by a set of beliefs and assumptions consisting of subtle norms and values (Peterson & Spencer, 1990; Schein, 1991;Tierney, 1988), at times those values and belief systems serve to undermine efforts to achieve a more diverse environment (Trower & Chait, 2002). Based on the supposition that African American women nurse faculty productivity would vary depending on the degree of satisfaction and the cultural environment of the parent academic institution, it was proposed that the extent of productivity would be greater at HBCUs. Further, it was anticipated that faculty satisfaction would positively correlate with productivity, and that HBCU faculty would express higher levels of satisfaction with their respective academic environments.
At predominantly white and historically black colleges and universities:
1 ) is there a difference in the extent of productivity of African American women nurse faculty as measured by authorship, grantsmanship and leadership; and,
2) is there a correlation between selected elements of satisfaction with the academic institution's organizational culture and the scholarly productivity of African American women nurse faculty?
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Race and Gender Issues Related to Faculty Performance
The literature abounds with studies and theories that address the issues surrounding organizational culture and faculty performance. Kulis (1992) researched the impact of organizational factors on the participation of black faculty at 230 selected departments of sociology at four-year colleges and universities. Chairs of departments were asked to complete a mailed questionnaire that reported sex, race, tenure status, rank, and committee assignments. The findings of the study suggested that institutional characteristics that promote the presence of black faculty seemed to be linked to size of the institution. Larger institutions tend to be located in communities where opportunities to interact with other African Americans are plentiful, tend to have open lines for faculty appointments, and tend to be able to offer better salary packages. However, the study also found that the size of the institution negatively affected minority faculty participation, in that the power of black faculty tended to be diluted on the larger campus. Further, it was found that the most potent catalyst for reducing disparity in rank equity seemed to be the extent to which the institution depended upon governmental revenues. The study concluded that replication was needed to focus on black scholars' views of the academy, rather than on the views of department chairs, who may not have a true understanding of the needs and concerns of their black faculty.
Thomas and Asunka (1995) investigated the status of minority and women faculty at a predominantly white academic institution located in the Southwestern region of the nation. An 88-item questionnaire was mailed to 2,008 male and female, minority and non-minority faculty. The response rate was 47%. Data were elicited on the following issues: job access, job incentives and disincentives, life and productivity in the academic department, mentorship, job satisfaction, encounters with discrimination, and plans to leave current employment. The data indicated that 29% of the respondents had been recruited for employment by the university, 30% had applied on their own, and 40% had been contacted by a colleague. Noting significant differences between male and female applicants regarding the recruitment process, the study found that 43% of females, as compared with 28% of males, had applied for employment on their own, suggesting that search committees may have a tendency to recruit men, especially for senior level and administrative positions.
Salary dissatisfaction and inequity were greater concerns for the female faculty, and gender discrimination was the most common form of discrimination. Faculty turnover was shown to be problematic for minorities and females, who tended to occupy the lower academic ranks.
Wong and associates (2001) were the first to examine factors affecting the academic success of women faculty of color in academic medicine. An open-ended email survey was sent to key informants identified by the directors at each of six National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health, an initiative developed by the Office of Women's Health within the Department of Health and Human Services. These six funded centers were required to develop a specific focus on careers of minority women faculty, and to demonstrate excellence in five key components: clinical service, education, outreach, research and leadership. A follow up telephone survey of the key informants revealed that while each of the centers had leadership activities that addressed the needs of women faculty or minority faculty, few had specific programs to target minority women as a separate group. The study concluded that further research is needed to understand the barriers to diversification, and made recommendations for the development of diversity indicators with national benchmarks, guidelines for mente,ing and faculty development, and support for career development initiatives.
Palepu and associates (2000) conducted a survey of fulltime salaried faculty at 24 medical schools in the United States. Schools meeting study criteria had over 200 faculty members with at least 50 women and ten underrepresented minority faculty (URM). HBCU and Puerto Rican medical schools were excluded from the study. A total of 3,013 surveys were mailed to the campus address of eligible faculty and resulted in a 60% rate of return (N = 1,807). However, of the total only 195 were URMs. The URM study participants were mostly male (62%) and board certified (87%), however, few held PhD or MD/PhD degrees (22%), and most (61%) felt the need to supplement their income with moonlighting activities. Further, it was found that the URM study participants tended to come from less advantaged backgrounds, to have more clinical responsibilities and less research time, and to have obtained lower career satisfaction scores. The study concluded that dissatisfied URM faculty were more likely to leave academic medicine, further reducing their numbers. Black Women in the Academy
Tobin (1981) studied the status of the black female Ph.D. employed at thirty-one 4-year state-supported black colleges and universities during the period 1973-1974. A total of 118 black women doctorates responded to a mailed questionnaire. At the time of this study only a few minority women faculty were employed outside of HBCUs. Data were collected on 6 broad categories: family background, experiences during graduate training, marital and family status, career history, community life and activities, and obstacles encountered during career development. The study found that 41 % of the respondents had not published articles, 86% had not publishec books, 39% had not engaged in grantwriting, and 52% had not presented professional papers. Most of the respondents taught at institutions located in the South, and among that group the state of North Carolina had the largest number of participants. Nearly all of the respondents held senior professorial rank: associate and full professorships. The mean age was 48, and most were employed in the field of education. Fifty-six percent of the participants were married and 46% had no children. The majority reported participation in professional meetings and community activities. The major reason for attaining the doctorate was to pursue a career interest, and most reported very little racial discrimination in employment practices.
In a follow up to Tobin's study, Gregory ( 1995) again studied black women in the academy, sampling the nearly 40( members of the Association of Black Women in Higher Education. A total of 182 usable surveys were returned and analyzed. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of economic and psychosocial factors on the decisions of Black women faculty to remain in, return to or voluntarily leave the academy. The study found that the primary reason for remaining in the academy was the achievement of tenure status. The primary reason for returning to academe was job satisfaction despite having received a significant number of nonacademic job offers. Those who chose to voluntarily leave the academy tended to hold a non-tenured position, reported less job satisfaction, and received fewer offers for academic employment than did those who remained in or returned to an academic position. Limited upward mobility, time management issues, family/personal factors, and management of multiple role sets were most often cited as the primary barriers impeding progress toward success and achievement.
Harris (1995) examined the determinants of minority faculty success using a qualitative, case-based research approach. The study population consisted of 14 African Americans, who were the recipients of an award for scholarly achievement. The participants were doctorally-prepared, senior-level faculty employed at 13 New England 4-year colleges and universities. Internal attributes known to characterize the profile of successful African American business professionals were extrapolated to determine their applicability to African American faculty. The following attributes were studied: communication skills, racial awareness, work performance, self confidence, professional relationships, longterm goals, group identification, sponsorship, and community service. The study found that while some of the respondents did not have mentors to help guide their careers, all were able to attain success at PWCUs. Success was defined as recognition by peers, receipt of research grant awards, published scholarly works, and documented teaching effectiveness. Even though half of the respondents indicated dissatisfaction with income, financial compensation was not listed as a significant measure of success. Several participants admitted to additional workload in the form of administratively imposed ethnic ally-related activities that were not part of the consideration in matters of promotion and tenure review. Consistent with previous studies, the men earned higher salaries and held twice as many faculty positions as did the women. Four of the 5 women and 6 of the 9 men held full professorships. The number of publications tended to be equal for both sexes, however, the men received more grants and had higher grant awards than did the women. Fewer women than men had mentors, and fewer men than women expressed feelings of isolation.
Black Nurse Faculty
tiger and associates (1992) researched black nurse faculty perceptions of institutional barriers to success at predominantly white colleges and universities. A questionnaire and open-ended survey were mailed to 282 black nurse faculty, yielding a response rate of 45%. The findings of the data identified the following perceived barriers of the faculty respondents: low salaries; lack of mentorship programs; unequal expectations of white versus black faculty; insufficient opportunity to participate in funded, publishable research; the southern location of the institution; and, the historical presence of racism.
Jones and Tucker-Allen (2000) discussed the role of mentorship in the development of successful strategies for black nurse faculty. They stressed the importance of knowing the cultural environment of the academic institution and recommended methods for overcoming institutional barriers to the formation of the mentoring relationship, which included the following strategies: membership and active participation in the Association of Black Nurse Faculty, Inc; development of a field of expertise; selection of a knowledgeable mentor; maintenance of a portfolio containing professional accomplishments; creation of networks with black nurse faculty researchers; and, development of enhanced self esteem. The article identified a list of mentee activities designed to follow typical university guidelines for promotion and tenure and included: submission of manuscripts and research proposals; presentation of research abstracts; appointment to journal editorial boards; and, service as committee chair for a professional organization and at the departmental, college, and university levels within the academic institution. While it was stressed that tenure and promotions committees are made up of varying types of personalities, the prescription for the attainment of success, as outlined, although not guaranteed, adhered to the general guidelines for scholarship at most institutions of higher education.
Contemporary research findings investigating the impact of organizational culture on women and minority faculty indicate that the most common sources of dissatisfaction were related to the sociocultural environment of the academic institution. Mentorship, discrimination, pay inequity, size of the institution, workload, geographical location and tenor and promotion issues were all cited as factors having an impact on the success and satisfaction of minority academicians. Further, when race and gender were examined in the same research study, the impact of both of these descriptors placed minority women at a significant disadvantage.
Organizational Culture Theory was used as the conceptual framework to provide the basis to explore the extent of productivity and levels of satisfaction among the study participants. What may significantly account for the underrepresentation of minority nurse faculty and their productive works might reside in a better understanding of those factors contributing to faculty satisfaction on the academic campus. Certain characteristics within the academic environment have been identified in the literature as factors affecting the sociocultural milieu of the academy and faculty performance. Organizational culture, as a significant theoretical construct in faculty productivity, is increasingly gaining interest in the field of higher education (Rhoads & Tierney, 1990; Tierney, 1988), and has been the subject of study across a variety of disciplines. There are several reasons for this emerging phenomenon. Organizational culture is currently perceived to be 1) a major factor in determining institutional effectiveness; 2) an important concept related to individual performance; 3) a mechanism for attracting, socializing and retaining new members; 4) the factor that establishes institutional identity; and, 5) a relevant characteristic that helps to give meaning to the various forms of quantitative data used to measure institutional attributes (Peterson & Spencer, 1990).
Tierney's (1988) seminal work established a conceptual framework to describe the six dimensions of organizational culture in higher education. These dimensions serve as the elemental entities of the academic environment, establishing parameters for defining both the internal and external forces which influence the institutional setting and faculty performance. Tierney asserts that the components of organization culture include: environment, mission, strategy, information, socialization and leadership. These elements determine the interactional processes of the academy. Using the constructs of organizational culture in higher education, the current study investigated the relationships between women nurse faculty satisfaction and scholarly productivity as measured by authorship, grantsmanship and leadership at HBCUs and PWCUs.
A correlational study design was used to investigate the relationships of faculty levels of satisfaction and the extent of productivity of African American women nurse faculty teaching at HBCUs and PWCUs. A demographic questionnaire and attitudinal survey instrument were mailed to the campus addresses of African American female nurse educators listed in the Directory of Minority Nursing Faculty (Allen, 1994). The study was approved by the institutional review board at a research university. A one-page cover letter explaining the usefulness of the study accompanied the survey. The respondents of the first mailing were asked to complete the surveys returning in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped envelope. Return of the survey was interpreted as consent to participate. A signed consent form was not used and a reminder postcard was not sent.
The data collection was conducted over a period of two and one-half months. A total of 467 survey instruments were mailed nationwide to African American women nurse faculty teaching at HBCUs and PWCUs. The first mailing, of 400 surveys sent to a convenience sample of faculty meeting the study criteria, returned 10 usable surveys from HBCUs and 119 from PWCUs, yielding a response rate of 32.3%. A second mailing of 67 surveys, targeting HBCUs, was conducted to obtain a more representative sampling from those institutions which focus on the African American diaspora. The second mailing produced a yield of 18 surveys from HBCUs. Of the total (N = 467) surveys mailed, 38 percent (n = 178) were returned. Of those returned 31 were unusable owing to faculty retirement (n = 1); death (n = 2); relocation (n = 13); and, inability to meet study criteria for collegiate faculty status (n = 12), race or ethnicity (n = 2), or appointment as nurse faculty (n = 1). Of the remaining surveys, 31.5 percent (N = 147) returned usable data.
The questionnaire and attitudinal survey instrument were developed by this investigator and based on relevant literature concerning organizational culture theory and productivity of academics. The demographic questionnaire was used to identify faculty and institutional characteristics and is described in detail elsewhere (McNeal, 1998; McNeal, 2000). The attitudinal survey consisted of six subscales each with a set of responses ranging from 5 to 12 items. Using a six-point Likert scale, respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with item descriptors which measured the constructs of Tierney's (1988) six dimensions of organizational culture: information, socialization, environment, strategy, mission, and leadership. The rating scale for each item score for the six dimensions ranged from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied). The dimension of information, containing 6 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived presence of electronic/telecommunication technologies and resources at the departmental level. The dimension of socialization, containing 11 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived processes of cultural interaction among students, faculty and alumni. The dimension of environment, containing 6 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived presence of sociocultural conditions influencing diversity. The dimension of strategy, containing 11 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived decisionmaking approaches at departmental and institutional levels. The dimension of mission, containing 5 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived departmental and institutional philosophical orientations. The dimension of leadership, containing 12 items, measured satisfaction with the perceived departmental and institutional ranking at the regional and national levels. Faculty satisfaction scale subscores for each of the six dimensions were correlated with the study outcome variables.
Face and content validity were established by a threemember panel of nurse academicians, who evaluated the instrument for clarity, appropriateness and relevance to the study objectives. The members of the panel held full-time faculty positions and each was employed at one of three large urban public institutions. Suggested modifications were incorporated into the instrument. Following revisions, the instrument was pretested by a second group of nurse academicians. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was computed for each of the six subscales and ranged from 0.83 to 0.94 as shown in Table 1.
Thirty states and the District of Columbia were represented among the respondents. Reflecting the national distribution of black faculty at collegiate programs of nursing (Moccia, 1996), the majority of the respondents resided in the south. Of the 147 faculty who participated in this study, 28 taught at HBCUs and 119 taught at PWCUs. Unlike the national distribution of black nurse faculty the majority of whom are employed at 2-year programs (Moccia, 1996), two-thirds of the respondents held full-time faculty positions at 4-year colleges and universities. Of those responding at HBCUs, 53.6% were between the ages of 45 - 55 years; 39.3% were assistant professors; 14.3% were either associate/assistant dean or program coordinators; 35.7% were tenured; 60.7% were married; and, 46.4% taught primarily at the baccalaureate level. Of those responding at PWCUs, 45.5% were between the ages of 45 - 55 years; 35.3% were assistant professors; 2.5% were associate/assistant dean, 11% were program coordinators; 45.4% were tenured; 63% were married; and, 42% taught primarily at the baccalaureate level. A majority of faculty (53.6%) at both types of schools reported annual earnings that ranged from $31,000 to $45,000. Approximately 12% of the faculty at PWCUs earned annual salaries greater than $61,000. The majority of respondents had received their basic nursing education at the baccalaureate level. The largest percentage (35.7%) of HBCU faculty had six to ten years teaching experience, while the PWCU faculty were more evenly distributed across all levels of years in education.
Research Question 1 - At predominantly white and historically black colleges and universities is there a difference in the extent of productivity of African American women nurse faculty as measured by authorship, grantsmanship and leadership?
The variables authorship, grantsmanship and leadership were used to measure faculty productivity. On the demographic data form respondents were asked to indicate their levels of published works (authorship), funded grant activities (grantsmanship), and elected or appointed positions held (leadership). The study found a significant difference in the levels of scholarly productivity when comparisons were made between the faculty at PWCU and HBCU institutions. Findings were reported as aggregate (BOTH) data and as data separated by type school (HBCU or PWCU). Authorship
To measure the authorship variable, respondents were asked to indicate the number of published and/or submitted works completed within the previous five years (Table 2). A summed score indicated the number of published and submitted works in each of nine categories: authored article in a refereed journal, authored article in a non-refereed journal, authored/co-authored book chapter, edited/co-edited textbook, authored/co-authored textbook, journal editorship position, research abstract reviewer, manuscript reviewer, and research grant reviewer. The study found that 71% (104 of 147) of the total respondents served as authors of publications, ranging from I to 64 per respondent. Collectively, the 104 study respondents published a total of 463 works. Comparatively, 67% (n = 80) of the total PWCU faculty respondents demonstrated a higher level of productivity with regard to both submitted manuscripts (n = 133) and published work (n = 409). While 86% (n 24) of the HBCU faculty reported fewer submissions (n 35) and fewer publications (n = 54), as a group they averaged a higher number of actual published works (M = 2.92, SID 6.90) when compared with their average of manuscript submissions (M = 1.46, SD 3.30). With regard to actual publications however, PWCU faculty (M = 5.16, SD = 9.48) demonstrated more productivity reporting, on average, a level of published works that nearly doubled that of HBCU faculty (M = 2.92, SD = 6.90).
To measure the grantsmanship variable, faculty respondents were asked to indicate, within the previous five years, the number of grants and totaled grant dollar awards for each of four types of grant submissions: research grants, training grants, corporate/industrial grants, and voluntary/non-profit grants. The study found that nearly 60% (88 of 147) of all respondents reported some level of grantwriting in the form of grant submissions over the previous five years, ranging from I to 11 submissions per respondent (Table 3). At PWCU institutions 62 (52%) respondents submitted a total of 118 grants. At HBCU institutions 26 (93%) respondents submitted a total of 36 grants. PWCU faculty, on average (M = 1.90, SD = 2.27), submitted a higher number of grants per person than did HBCU faculty (M = 1.38, SD = 1.72). To more accurately describe the differences in funded amounts awarded HBCU and PWCU faculty and to guard against skewing the data owing to the presence of a few significant outliers, a revenue generated index was computed and applied to the total study population. The index measured the totaled grant dollars on a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 equaled funded grant awards of less than $1000, 1 equaled grant awards ranging from $1,000 to $9,999, 2 equaled grant awards ranging from $10,000 to $99,999, 3 equaled grant awards ranging from $100,000 to $999,999, and 4 equaled grant awards in excess of $1,000,000. The study found that HBCU faculty tended to generate, on average, slightly higher funded grant awards (M = .86, SD = 1.18), relative to their size, than did PWCU faculty (M = .77, SD = 1.26). Because only 60% (n = 88) of the study respondents reported receiving funded grant dollar amounts, when data were compared across both types of schools, total dollars awarded, on average, were less than $1,000 (M = .79, SD = 1.24).
To measure the leadership variable, faculty were asked to indicate the number of elected or appointed positions held in professional organizations at the state, national and international levels over the previous ten years (Table 4). Faculty choices were limited to three categories: nursing organizations, health-related organizations, and other. Among the respondents, a total of 114 leadership positions were held in nursing organizations, 67 positions in health-related organizations, and 12 in other organizations. The aggregated data results showed that when comparable levels of reported elected or appointed positions were noted across both types of schools, in general, faculty held less than one position of leadership in nursing organizations (M = .79, SD = 1.51), health-related organizations (M = .46, SD = 1.42) and other (M = .08, SD = .46). However, when the data were disaggregated by type school, the results indicated that when compared with their PWCU counterparts, a higher percentage of HBCU faculty, relative to their size, held leadership positions in nursing organizations (53%), health-related organizations (36%) and other (10%). On average HBCU (M = 1.39, SD 1.87) faculty tended to hold more than twice as many leadership positions in nursing organizations when compared with PWCU (M = .63, SD = 1.38) faculty.
Research Question 2 - At predominantly white and historically black colleges and universities is there a correlation between selected elements of satisfaction with the academic institution's organizational culture and the scholarly produc tivity of African American women nurse faculty?
Table 5 depicts the distribution of faculty satisfaction scores for the six dimensions of organizational culture as aggregate (BOTH) data and as data separated by type school (HBCU or PWCU). To measure the levels of satisfaction and compare the responses of the two subgroups of faculty a mean item score (MIS) was computed. The MIS was derived by dividing the mean (M) score for each subgroup by the total number of items for that dimension, rounded to two places beyond the decimal point. The MIS rating scale, ranging from I (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied), denoted the levels of satisfaction measured for each subgroup and for the aggregated total. When respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with regard to the six dimensions of organizational culture, the aggregated data results showed that faculty at both types of schools tended to be somewhat dissatisfied with the academic environment (MIS = 3.46), leadership (MIS = 3.38), strategy (M= 3.73), and socialization (MIS 2.97). Conversely, the aggregated data indicated that faculty at both types of schools tended to be satisfied with the mission (M = 4.51) and information (M= 4.00) dimensions. However, when the data were disaggregated and analyzed by specific type of school, variations were noted between HBCU faculty and PWCU faculty for all six dimensions. Comparing the two schools with regard to socialization, PWCU faculty (MIS = 2.76) tended to be moderately, as opposed to somewhat (HBCU MIS = 3.91), dissatisfied with the institutional processes of cultural interaction among students, faculty and alumni. Along the dimension of information, PWCU faculty (MIS = 4.12) tended to be somewhat satisfied, as compared with HBCU faculty (MIS = 3.49), who tended to be somewhat dissatisfied with informational resources. On the dimension of environment PWCU faculty (MIS = 3.33) were somewhat dissatisfied, as compared with HBCU faculty (MIS = 4.08), who were somewhat satisfied. With regard to the dimension of leadership, while both subgroups were somewhat dissatisfied, HBCU faculty (MIS = 3.94) had a slightly more favorable response than did PWCU faculty (MIS = 3.25). For the mission dimension while both groups were somewhat satisfied, HBCU (M= 4.83) faculty had a slightly more favorable response than did the PWCU (M = 4.43) faculty. Along the strategy dimension, while both were somewhat dissatisfied, PWCU faculty had a slightly more favorable response.
Study results found that among HBCU faculty the extent of productivity positively correlated with satisfaction for three of the six dimensions of organizational culture. Specifically, when faculty satisfaction with the dimension of information was correlated with productivity, HBCU faculty findings indicated moderately positive correlations between satisfaction and submitted works (r = .46, p = .03), between satisfaction and published works (r = .44, p = .04), between satisfaction and grantwriters (r = .46, p = .02), and between satisfaction and the revenue generated index (r = .53, p = .00). Comparatively, the relationships between satisfaction and productivity among PWCU faculty tended to be negligible, with the exception of satisfaction and submitted works where a weakly negative correlation (r = -.26, p = .02) was found.
When faculty satisfaction with the dimension of socialization was correlated with productivity, a moderately positive relationship was found between satisfaction and published works (r = .49, p = .03) among HBCU faculty. All other relationships with regard to outcome variables were negligible.
When faculty satisfaction with the dimension of strategy was correlated with productivity, at HBCUs moderately positive correlations were found between satisfaction and submitted publications (r = .51, p = .01), between satisfaction and published works (r = .42, p = .04), and between satisfaction and revenue generated index (r = .49, p = .01). All other relationships with regard to outcome variables were negligible.
When faculty satisfaction with the dimensions of environment, leadership, and mission was correlated with productivity, no significant relationships were found.
Descriptive data findings indicated that the distribution of the study participants mirrored that of the national geographical location of black nursing collegiate faculty, in that most resided in the south. However, unlike the national population of minority faculty, 67% of the study respondents taught at 4year institutions. Consistent with previous research studies of minority faculty in other disciplines, the current study found that African American women nurse faculty tend not to hold senior professorial rank, administrative positions, or tenure status. When comparisons were made between HBCU and PWCU faculty, while the absolute figures were low, a higher percentage of HBCU faculty reported holding deanships or program coordinator positions, and, on average, had a higher number of grant awards and held more professional leadership positions. On the other hand, a higher percentage of PWCU faculty were tenured, earned salaries in excess of $61,000, and were the authors of more published works. Unlike the national distribution of minority faculty which show that the majority teach at HBCUs (USDOE, 1996), the majority of the study participants taught at PWCUs.
The aggregated data findings of this study did not support a strong relationship between selected elements of satisfaction with the academic institution's organizational culture and the scholarly productivity of African American women nurse faculty teaching at HBCUs and PWCUs. However, when the data were disaggregated by type school, moderately significant differences between HBCU and PWCU faculty were found, such that along several dimensions (socialization, environment, and leadership) the levels of dissatisfaction among PWCU faculty significantly skewed the overall data findings toward the negative end of the Likert scale. While PWCU faculty reported dissatisfaction along the dimensions of socialization, environment, strategy and leadership, HBCU faculty, although not as strongly discontented, reported dissatisfaction with the socialization, strategy, leadership and information processes of their respective institutions. In general, PWCU faculty demonstrated higher levels of productivity with regard to authorship and grantsmanship, and tended to be more satisfied with the information and strategy processes of their respective academic institutions than were their HBCU counterparts. Conversely, HBCU faculty demonstrated higher levels of productivity with regard to leadership, holding more elected/ appointed positions in nursing organizations, and tended to be more satisfied with the environment and mission of their respective institutions than were their PWCU counterparts. Study results found that only among HBCU faculty did the extent of productivity demonstrate a positive correlation with satisfaction for three of the six dimensions of organizational culture: information, socialization and strategy. Specifically, for the HBCU respondents, a positive correlation was found between information and authorship and grantsmanship, between socialization and authorship, and between strategy and authorship and grantsmanship. These findings were in spite of the fact that the HBCU faculty reported a level of mild dissatisfaction with those same constructs, a confounding factor that may have been due to the disproportionately smaller sample size of the HBCU respondents. Still, it is interesting to note that no significant relationships could be found between satisfaction and levels of productivity for the PWCU faculty, even though these faculty were measurably more productive than their HBCU counterparts.
There were several limitations of the current study. The sample was not random, men and members of other minority groups were not included, the instrument was not standardized, and a disproportionate ratio of HBCU to PWCU faculty respondents made up the sample population. While caution must be exercised in making recommendations based on this comparative study, nevertheless, these findings have significant implications for nursing academe.
First, the findings support the creation of culturally responsive academic environments to improve faculty satisfaction for women and minorities on the nation's college campuses. Among this nationwide sample of minority faculty, the data showed significantly higher levels of satisfaction among the HBCU faculty when comparisons were made between the two subgroups. Secondly, the findings support the need for further research to uncover reasons for the levels of dissatisfaction particularly expressed by the African American women nurse faculty teaching at majority institutions. Previous research studies have identified feelings of isolation among female faculty, pay inequity between genders, discrimination, and lack of mentoring relationships, to name a few. Thirdly, academic accrediting bodies should seek to develop diversity indicators with national benchmarks to evaluate the progression of the nation's schools of nursing toward the creation of a more diverse nursing professoriate. Suffice it to say that more concerted strategies must be implemented to reduce these negative conditions and to foster a more accepting environment for both women and minority academicians.
As the discipline of nursing moves forward in its quest to create a more ethnically representative cadre of academicians, the powerful influence of organizational culture and its impact upon minority faculty must be taken into consideration. Given that most minority faculty teach at HBCUs, in order to promote a more equal distribution, attention must be paid to those factors affecting minority faculty satisfaction and productivity on the nation's traditional collegiate campuses.
This study was funded in part by a research grant award sponsored by Sigma Theta Tau International, Delta Rho Chapter. The author is sincerely appreciative of the support and guidance of Drs. Marvin Lazerson, Rosalyn Watts, and Elizabeth Gonzalez.
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Gloria J. McNeal, PhD, APRN, BC
Gloria J. McNeal, PhD, APRN, BC, is assistant dean of student services at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and serves on the Editorial Review Board of The ABNF Journal.…