Social-Support, Self-Esteem and Depression as Determinants of Quality of Life among Sickle Cell Patients

Article excerpt

Abstract

This study examined the influence of social support, self-esteem and depression on the quality of life among sickle cell patients in Benin City. A total of 52 sickle cell patients made up of 29 males and 23 females participated in the study. Questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of the demographic variables, as well as Quality of Life, Depression, Self-esteem, and Social Support scales. Results of the simple multiple regression analysis revealed a significant joint influence of self-esteem, social support and depression [R^sup 2^ = 0.32F (7,527); p < .001] on the quality of life among sickle cell patients .... The independent contributions showed that Social-support was found to significantly contribute greatly to quality of life, ....Also depression contributed significantly inversely to quality of life among sickle cell patients. However, self-esteem was not found to independently contribute significantly to quality of life, among sickle cell patients ... The findings have implication for understanding quality of life among sickle cell patients. Again, the findings are useful for the development of intervention that will enhance social support and self -efficacy among sickle cell patient as well as decrease their negative mood.

Keywords: Depression, Self-esteem, Sickle Cell Anaemia, Quality of Life, Adaptation

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

Individual with sickle cell disease are at high risk for significant health complication as a result of the production of abnormally sickle shaped red blood cells, the disease comprises of a group of inherited synthesis of variant or mutant haemoglobins, it is an autosomal red blood disease in which one has to have two copies of the sickle cell version of the betahaemoglobin (Hbs) gene to develop the disease, people who have inherited only one copy of the sickle variant do not suffer the disease however they can pass the variant onto their children, these persons are referred to as carrying the sickle cell "trait".

Over 100,000 Nigerian children die annually out of 150,000 who are born with sickle cell disease while no fewer than five million of the total population have been discovered to be suffering from the deadly disease (Falusi 2012) in Nigerian Tribune. Nigeria has the highest number of sickle cell patients in the world and the poorest health care and support for the helpless patients. "Based on World Health Organization [WHO] indices, Nigeria accounts for 75 percent of infant sickle-cell cases in Africa and almost 80 percent of infant deaths from the disease in the continent", Wali (2008) sited in IRIN.

According to the WHO, 200,000 infants are born with sicklecell in Africa every year, with Nigeria accounting for about threequarters of these births. Sixty percent of the 200,000 will die as infants. Sickle-cell disease is an incurable genetic disorder widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and among descendente of Africans worldwide. Sufferers have no visible symptoms, but periodically experience severe pain and are also highly prone to anaemia because the blood cells break down after only 10-20 days, rather than the usual four months.

Sickle cell disease a chronic hereditary refers to a group of disorders in which abnormal haemoglobin is present (Charache, Lubing and Reid 1989). The characteristics of the symptoms of the disease include pain, stroke, anemia, pulmonary dysfunction and major organ complications, the most frequent intractable problem encountered by the patients are tissue ischemia that results from vaso- occlusive episodes, they report pain often in their abdomen, chest, low back, joints and extremities in addition to physical complication individuals are more likely to report emotional and psychological difficulties.

Sickle cell disease is associated with high degree of morbidity. The cooperative society of sickle cell disease (CSSD) found that morbid event such as strokes that impaired functions often preceded death in childhood. …