Job Satisfaction and Affective Commitment

Article excerpt

The integral part of any management process is to manage people at work. A well managed organization sees workers as the main source of quality and productivity. An effective organization tends to promote a sense of commitment and satisfaction in its employees. This paper identifies the relationship between the affective commitment and job satisfaction among the Indian IT employees. For the present study, the data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire from 300 employees working in the IT industry in India with the objective of measuring the affective commitment and job satisfaction of IT employees and to identify the relationship between the affective commitment and different aspects of job satisfaction. The findings indicated a positive relationship between the job satisfaction and affective commitment. Amongst the components of job satisfaction, the highest correlations with affective commitment were related to salary, benefits, fair treatment, opportunity for advancement and supervision. The regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction has a statistically significant impact on affective commitment. The findings of this study points out some salient issues in the IT industry. The detailed findings and implications are discussed in the paper.

Introduction

In today's competitive world, the biggest challenge which the organizations are facing is to retain talented employees. Job satisfaction is necessary to promote functional employee behavior in the organization. Forthe organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a workforce that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Job satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism and turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant workplace behaviors. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.

Securing commitment and retaining good employees are very important to achieve stability and reduce costly employee turnover. Various outcomes are influenced by the organizational commitment such as decreased employee turnover, higher motivation and organizational support. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. An employee, who is high on affective commitment, commits to the organization because he/she 'wants to'. Organizational commitment is recognized as a key factor in the employee relationship. Similarly, it is also widely accepted that one of the ways to reduce voluntary turnover is by strengthening the employee commitment to the firm.

Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

The current study is based on the Three-Component Model (TCM) of the organizational commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1991). The employee commitment survey based on TCM measures three forms of employee commitmentto an organization: desire-based (affective commitment); obligation-based (normative commitment); and cost-based (continuance commitment). The research conducted to test the three-component model of commitment has demonstrated that commitment can be characterized by different mindsets-desire, obligation and cost (Meyer and Allen, 1990).

Affective commitment is defined as the employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he/she 'wants to'. In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen (1991) drew largely on the conceptualization of commitment of Mowday et a!. (1982), which in turn was inspired by the earlier work of Kanter (1968).

The term job satisfaction refers to the general attitude of an individual towards his/her job (Robbins, 2003). …