The Level of Creative Abilities Dimensions According to Torrance Formal Test (B) and Their Relationship with Some Variables (Sex, Age, GPA)

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Abstract

This study aimed to identify the level of dimensions for creative abilities (originality, flexibility, originality, elaboration) among students in Al Rai Jordanian schools according to Torrance Formal test, and to investigate the differences in these levels attributable to the study variables (gender, age, grade point average "GPA").

The study sample consisted of (63) students: (31) males (32) females aged six, seven and eight from grades one, two and three attending the mentioned school for the academic year 2010-2011.

The researchers used Torrance formal test form (b), calculated means, standard deviations and ANOVA, and used Schaffe's test for posterior comparisons.

The study indicated that most creative thinking skills (fluency, flexibility, and elaboration) scored a medium level while originality was at a low level, the presence of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of fluency and flexibility attributed to sex in favor of females, and also showed a statistically significant differences between the performance of students means on the Torrance Test due to the variables of age and in favor for (8 and 7) years old over those (6) years old.

In addition, the researchers found statistically significant differences for the means of the sample performance on the test dimensions for the variable GPA in favor for those of GPA (70-85, and 85 and above). All of this clearly indicates the strong relation between the variables of (age, sex, and GPA) and the level of creative abilities dimension respectfully.

Keywords: creativity, originality, flexibility, fluency, elaboration

1. Introduction

The views of scientists Contrast in defining the concept of creativity idiomatically, as everyone handles this concept from the view of his specialization, scientific background and personal interests. Yet there is a major development in the concept of creativity, through three main phases: the first phase, which lasted since ancient times to the stage of Renaissance, when the concept of creativity in that stage was marked by mixing the concept of creativity with intelligence, talent and early maturity. The second phase, which began with the late nineteenth century, focused on the role of genetics in creativity, and the American School which focused on highlighting the role of social and environmental factors. it was also characterized by the emergence of the psychological theory which attempted to explain creativity, also appeared to the stage equality between the concepts of creativity geniuses and intelligence, with receding controversy on the impact of genetics and environment, in the creative process as well as the development of some creativity measure tools and programs to develop and teach creativity. At The third phase, the concept of creativity became more apparent at this stage that reached from the mid-twentieth century until the present day.

The creativity tests do not have complete aspects nor are ideal, and the results may be misleading sometimes, as a student maybe creative in a subject such as science or arts, but scores average degree in creativity tests. Also, the validity coefficients to creativity tests between the test results with another criterion of creativity as teacher evaluation for example, or performance evaluations and creative products, may range between 25-40% and this is not high enough, as creativity is a complex and compound ability that can take endless forms, as indicated Davis (1989) that is impossible to measure creative ability in a very precise way. (Davis, 1989).

The educator Torrance is at the forefront of scientists who popularized and published tests of creative thinking or what is called Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). These include verbal and non-verbal subtests, and are established to measure verbal and flexibility fluency; which means (the number of ideas that arise to solve a particular problem, and there are intellectual discrimination, originality and elaboration, by which we mean (the number of additional and new non-traditional elaboration. …