Analyzing the Construct Validity of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Indonesian Samples

Article excerpt

Abstract

The success of an organization is influenced by employees who not only perform their job, but also contribute their time and energy to provide assistance beside the formal obligations to the organization. This behavior is referred to as organizational citizenship behavior. This study was conducted to analyze the validity of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. Therefore, there were two main objectives in this study, namely to examine the construct validity of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to assess the reliability of the scale. Organizational citizenship behavior was measured using three dimensions and they were helping behavior, civic virtue and sportsmanship. The study was conducted on 11 religious schools located in North, East, South, Middle and West of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The schools consisted of 339 teachers. However, after examination of normality data, only 208 respondents were used as samples. The results of the study showed that the hypothesized model did not have a good fit to the data with Chi Square =190.168, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.89, GFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.87, RMSEA = 0.078. Thus, this model has to be revised. The results of the revised model showed a better fit with Chi Square =118.335, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.93, GFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07. The findings were discussed based on the suitability of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale as a valid measure within Indonesian context.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), validity, reliability

1. Introduction

As the world enters into the era of globalization and technology, educational institutions must also change to keep pace with the current development. As such, it needs teachers who are committed and who are willing to go above and beyond the call of duty in order to create successful organizations. Teachers should be willing to not only perform the formal obligations given to them, but must also be willing to contribute their time and energy in the tasks besides their formal responsibilities. These include helping coworkers at the workplace, attending meetings voluntarily and responding to correspondence. This behavior is called organizational citizenship behavior.

Organizational citizenship behavior for teachers can be defined as the behavior that is performed voluntarily by teachers in schools. They do not expect any reward, and the behaviors are not related to the formal reward system and it can enhance the functioning of the organization. Organ (1988) defined organizational citizenship behaviors as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization" (p. 4). Organizational citizenship behavior among teachers is important as it relates to other factors such as job satisfaction, burnout, organizational commitment and performance. Therefore, the measurement of organizational citizenship behavior needs to be accurate to indicate whether teachers have organizational citizenship behavior in their work.

Past studies found that the various scales to measure organizational citizenship behavior have good reliability. However, a review of the literature in this area reveals a lack of consensus about the dimensionality of this construct. Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine and Bachrach (2000) identified seven common themes or dimensions namely: (1) helping behavior, (2) sportsmanship, (3) organizational loyalty, (4) organizational compliance, (5) individual initiative, (6) civic virtue, and (7) self development, though five dimensions of OCB were more commonly tested. For example, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) used a 24-item scale developed through a series of stages in which they administered the scale in a sample of 988 employees working for a diversified petrochemical company throughout the United States, Canada and Europe. …