Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development-2002

Article excerpt

The authors present a review of the 2002 career development literature. The literature review is divided into the following areas: career theory, career assessment, career counseling interventions and practice, career counseling training and professional issues, and international issues in career counseling. The authors discuss the implications of the findings in this literature for career counseling practice.

The purpose of the annual review is to organize the career development literature that was published within a given year conceptually and to present it in a manner that is applicable for career practitioners. Our review of the career counseling literature for 2002 included 165 empirical and conceptual articles from 17 career, counseling, development, and international journals. Specifically, we compiled articles that were published in the leading career journals, including The Career Development Quarterly, Journal of Career Assessment, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Journal of Career Development. In addition, we included career-related articles that appeared in counseling, psychology, and student development journals such as The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of College Student Development, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, Journal of Employment Counseling, and Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. Finally, the primary international journals in psychology, guidance, and counseling were included. These journals were the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Australian Journal of Career Development, South African Journal of Psychology, Journal of Youth Studies, and Psychological Testing.

We restricted our review to articles that were relevant to traditional aspects of career development and practice. As such, we did not include articles pertaining to industrial-organizational psychology, management, or human resources. Exceptions to this included topics related to job satisfaction and career commitment. We included these related articles because career counselors can use these data when providing information or career counseling to individuals or groups. All citations in this review are from articles published in 2002 unless otherwise noted.

The final structure of this review is the result of several steps that occurred at each stage of the process, from selecting and accumulating articles to editing drafts of the review. The literature is organized into four broad sections: theory, assessment, career interventions and practice, and training and professional issues. We incorporated articles that focused on the career development of diverse groups (i.e., race, ethnicity, gender, and ability) in the United States into the respective sections. Because of the growing scholarship in the area of international career development and practice, we decided to address this literature in a separate section.

Career Theory

Career research continues to focus on theoretical advancements by examining traditional and modern career theories, and a considerable amount of the 2002 research was, indeed, on career theories. Theories continue to be scrutinized to examine their applicability to diverse populations. Career scholars have also suggested new theoretical approaches that seem to have greater relevance in working with diverse populations. The following sections highlight the career research that focused on career development theory.

Person-Environment Theories

Among the person-environment theories, Holland's typology theory received the most research attention. Holland's (1985) RIASEC model, which classifies people and work environments into Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional types, has significantly influenced career counseling. Last year was no exception, because several scholars explored various propositions of Holland's theory. …