The school counseling profession has published three journals in the course of its history. all articles in these journals were coded as to authorship, article type, content, and the core areas of the 2001 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) Standards. Distributions of articles in each category are discussed by decade, and the three journals are compared. Implications of the findings are discussed.
The first known school guidance program in the United States dates to 1889, when a Detroit school principal, Jesse B. Davis, introduced a guidance curriculum that was delivered in each English class in his school (Coy, 1999). In response to the industrialization and urbanization that was taking place in the country, the first decade of the 20th century saw increased concern for vocational guidance (Aubrey, 1992). Between 1914 and 1918, school guidance programs were initiated in several large cities around the United States (Poppen & Thompson, 1974). While vocational guidance came to include educational or academic guidance in the 1930s, counseling was originally conceived of as a tool or technique to assist in the guidance program (Aubrey).
It was not until the middle of the 20th century that the field of school counseling attained the status of a profession. That milestone is marked by the formation of a professional organization, the American School Counselor Association (ASCA), in 1952. As ASGA is celebrating its 50th anniversary, now is an appropriate time to reflect on "where it has been, where it is now, and where it is going" (Brown, 1969). ASCA was formed at close to the same time as the American Personnel and Guidance Association, forerunner of the American Counseling Association (ACA). APGA was inaugurated and became the fifth division to formally join the larger organization in 1953. This alliance was an important one, as "ASCA and ACA sort of grew together" (McDaniels, quoted in Simmons, 2002a). The ACA is also celebrating its 50th anniversary, and the significant contribution of ASCA to the broader Odd has been noted.
The importance of school counseling was rcflected in the movement by states to develop and implement counseling certification standards. The first certificate (Pupil Personnel Service Certificate, Guidance and Counseling) was issued in Ohio in 1955 (Coy, 1999). The newly legitimized profession of school guidance and counseling received a boost from Title V of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA), which was passed in 1958 in reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This act provided funding for expanding school testing programs and for training institutes for school counselors, both novice and experienced (Poppen & Thompson, 1974). The effect was an increase in the number of school counselors from 6,780 in 1951 to more than 30,000 in 1965 (Aubrey, 1992). Further support for expanded school guidance and counseling came from the James B. Conant report on American education, published in 1959 (Poppen & Thompson). In 1960, a White House Conference on Children and Youth also stressed the need for school counseling programs. The 1960s saw national upheaval concerning the issues of human and civil rights, which was a factor in the APGA national convention in 1968 (Simmons, 2002b). In the 1970s, Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided funding for elementary school guidance and counseling programs.
The present Rjcus on developmental guidance and counseling in the schools can be traced to the influence of Robert Mathcwson, who, as early as 1949, proposed that the school guidance program should be organized and implemented in a developmental fashion. he argued that teachers alone could not provide the necessary experiences required for optimal development of students, and he saw guidance programs as the most critical educational factor in enhancing student development (Aubrey, 1992).
A profession's journals can be viewed as a reflection of the history of the profession. Goodyear (1984), on the occasion of the publication of the inaugural issue of the newly titled Journal of Counseling and Development, reviewed the content of the previous journal (Personnel and Guidance Journal] as a means of evaluating the development of the profession to that point. At various times in the journal's history, other authors have examined the journal as a tool for self-reflection. Weinrach, Lustig, Chan, and Thomas (1998) commented that, "Studies such as these need to be conducted periodically to provide the profession with information about itself (p. 428).
In 1954, the first journal dedicated exclusively to the school counseling profession, The School Counselor, was published by ASCA. In 1967, a second periodical, Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, was added. In 1997, the two journals were merged, and the flagship journal of the organization, Professional School Counseling, was introduced. As individuals reflect on 50 years of professional school counseling, an analysis of the journals provides a unique perspective from which to review its development. Although other researchers have considered a portion of the school counseling literature, this analysis is unique in that it covers the entire history of all of the school counseling journals.
Our research questions were:
* How has authorship affiliation changed over time, and how has it differed among the three journals?
* To what extent have practitioners and academicians collaborated on articles in the journals?
* How have the types of articles changed over time and differed among journals?
* How have the topics covered in the journals changed over time and differed among journals?
* How have important events in the history of the profession influenced journal content?
* Which theoretical approaches have been covered, and what differences are found over time and among journals?
* How well have the eight areas of competency identified in the 2001 CACIlEP Standards been covered by the journals?
All volumes of all three journals devoted exclusively to school counseling (Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, The School Counselor, and Professional School Counseling) were obtained by the researchers via personal collections, university libraries, and interlibrary loan. A total of 2,585 articles were perused, which included 43 volumes of The School Counselor (1954-1996), 31 volumes of Elementary School Guidance and Counseling (1967-1997), and the first four volumes of Professional School Counseling (1997-June, 2001). The authors created a coding form based on an examination of previous studies analyzing journal articles and on current research questions. The coding form was pilot tested by the researchers who coded the same volume of Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and compared their results. The coding form was revised, and the reviewers then applied the new form to an issue of The School Counselor. The reviewers determined that the coding form was adequate, with the exception of the topics category. The coding form recorded the number of authors of each article and the work affiliation of each of the first three authors, as given in the author information for each article. Work affiliation categories were: K-12, University, Dual Affiliation (K-12 and University), Other (e.g., clinical setting, community agency), and Dual Affiliation (Other and University).
Next, researchers categorized each article as Empirical (Quantitative or Qualitative), case Study, Theoretical, Practical, Professional Issue, or Other. For this category, only one type was selected, so that the primary focus of the article was the basis for the decision. Empirical articles were always coded as such, even if the focus of the research was a professional issue, for example. If the purpose of the article was to describe a theory, it was coded as such. If the theory was secondary to the main focus of the article, that focus was coded and theory was not. However, there was a separate category for coding a specific theory mentioned in an article even when the focus of the article was something other than theory. The final item on the code sheet was "Topic." It was decided that due to differing categorizations of topics in the pilot test of the coding sheet, researchers would record a descriptive phrase and/or title for each article for later discussion by all researchers. The authors decided to follow the procedure put forth by Pope-Davis, Ligiero, Liang, and Codrington (2001), whose content analysis of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development developed new categories rather than rely on those of previous researchers because they believed that earlier categories might not capture changes over time.
The body of literature was then divided among the six researchers and independently coded. The data were then compiled. In order to devise a categorization system for the topics, two of the researchers selected a random sample of articles and examined the descriptions that had been recorded under Topics. General topic categories were created to describe the sample of articles, with the process continuing until it appeared that all further articles could be categorized by this system. Next, another random sample of 100 articles was selected to test the utility of the categorization system, and changes were made until the 14 categories were deemed exhaustive. (These categories arc listed and defined in the Appendix.) Then, four of the researchers met to place each article in one of the aforementioned categories by consensus. It was determined that some articles fit into more than one category (e.g., group counseling for African American males, which fit into the counseling approaches and diversity categories), and when needed, two categories were recorded for one article.
In order to investigate the extent to which the articles in the journals were aligned with the eight common core areas described in the 2001 CACREP Standards, the first author categorized each article that clearly fit the standards into one or more of the eight core areas. To establish inter-rater reliability, a random sample of 100 articles was independently coded by another researcher, with 99% agreement.
After data were compiled and tabulated, results were grouped by decade, examined, and compared with a list of historical highlights of the profession based on Baker (2000).
Because this study accessed the entire population, inferential statistics are not necessary. Data are gencrally reported as percentages to best reflect diffcrcnces, because of the varying number of articles in different decades and journals. First, analyses by decade will be presented, followed by a comparison of the three journals.
Authorship. The mean number of authors for all articles in this analysis is 1.63 (SD = .83). Interestingly, the number of authors per article has increased in a linear fashion from a mean of 1.14 (SD = .39) in the 1950s to a mean of 1.87 (SD = .96) in the 1990s. The mean for the current decade is 1.83 (SYJ = .84). The percentage of articles grouped by affiliation of the senior author is presented in Table 1; Table 2 shows similar information for the first two authors. The trends arc presented visually in Figure 1, which was constructed by combining articles authored by one or two K-12 affiliated authors, articles written by one or two university-affiliated authors, and articles with one K-12 and one university-affiliated author, without regard to senior authorship. It is notable that representation in school counseling journals by school counselors (K-12 affiliations) has decreased markedly from the 1950s to the present, whereas the number of university authors has increased in an opposite but equally marked trend. That is, school counselors' proportional contributions to the school counseling journals have decreased steadily since the 1950s, while at the same time university contributors have increased. It is also notable-and somewhat contrary to the general trend-that articles with a K-12 writer as senior author in collaboration with university authors have increased from 1.7 percent in the 1950s to 6.6 percent in the 1990s. Collaborative contributions by university authors and K-12 coauthors peaked in the 1970s and have decreased since.
Article type. A summary of the types of articles published by decade is presented in Table 3. Practical articles (those with direct application to counseling practice such as description of specific programs or techniques) dominated the earliest issues of The School Counselor, published in the 1950s, representing 70% of articles in that decade. This type of article represented half of all articles published from 1970 to 2000, but has a lesser presence in the new millennium. Professional issues articles (those that focus on such themes as the role of the school counselors) peaked at 36% in the 1960s, when the number of school counselors increased due to the NDEA passage in 1958, and then maintained a ratio below 20% until 2000, when the largest percentage of articles (41%) in the Professional School Counselor were of this type. The percentage of empirical articles increased gradually from the 1950s through the 1980s and has maintained the same level (approximately 25%) since that time; the percentage of qualitative and quantitative research articles is roughly the same throughout this period. Theoretical articles represented a small fraction of the articles, with slightly larger percentages found in the 1980s and the 200Os. case studies have maintained a small but consistent presence in the literature throughout its history, whereas literature reviews (defined as articles with the sole purpose of describing the literature on a particular topic) are almost nonexistent.
Because only approximately 4% of all articles in the school counseling journals discussed a particular counseling theory, Table 4 includes only theories mentioned in at least five articles. Adlerian Theory has received the most attention, followed by Behavioral Theory, Play Therapy, and Systems Theory, in that order. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy does not appear in the literature until the 1990s, and is the most discussed theory in the current decade through the end of 2001.
Content. Three types of content have dominated in the school counseling journals. Articles discussing professional issues (e.g., roles and responsibilities, ethics, needs of counselors, counselor training, professional development, perceptions and evaluation of counselors, research and evaluation of counseling programs), approaches and techniques (including groups, peer counseling, different theoretical approaches), and educational and career-oriented articles (focusing on curriculum, teachers, uncierachievement, dropouts, discipline, individualized educational programs, prevention programming, use of computers) represent 28%, 21%, and 18%, respectively, of all articles published in the history of these journals. Interestingly, articles focusing on violence (prevention and intervention, bullying, dating violence) did not begin to appear in the journals until the 1970s, but in the current decade, this issue represents 10% of articles, due in part to a special issue of Professional School Counseling focusing on violence. Table 5 presents these data.
Core areas of CACREP standards. The percentages of articles in each decade reflecting the common core areas identified in the 2001 CACREP Standards as essential in the training of all counselors, including school counselors, are presented in Table 6. Of the 2,585 total articles, 1,958 fit the descriptions for these core areas, representing about 75% of all articles. Articles focusing on educationspecific issues were most likely to be outside the core areas. Professional issues have consistently been the best represented of the core areas. Attention to social and cultural diversity has increased steadily, as have articles in the human development core (with the exception of the current decade to date).
Authorship. The mean number of authors per article differs by journal, with The School Counselor having the lowest mean, 1.59 (SD = .82), followed by Elementary School Guidance and Counseling with a mean of 1.64 (SD = .83) and Professional School Counseling with the largest number of authors per article, a mean of 1.91 (SD = .89). Author affiliation did not differ dramatically by journal. However, it is notable that The School Counselor published a greater percentage of articles by K-12 school counselors and the smallest percentage of articles by universityaffiliated authors than either of the other journals. Tables 7 and 8 present the percentage of contributors of each affiliation by journal.
Type of article. Table 9 presents a comparison of the three journals by the type of article. Practical articles represented approximately one half of total articles in both Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and The School Counselor, with that percentage declining to 39% in Professional School Counseling. The proportion of articles focusing on professional issues is greatest in Professional School Counseling (28%), whereas these issues are discussed in 15% and 23%, respectively, of the articles in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and The School Counselor. The percentage of articles reporting research studies, both qualitative and quantitative, is consistent across the three journals, at slightly less than 25%. Theoretical and case study articles are infrequently published in these journals, with The School Counselor publishing fewer of each category.
Content. Regarding topical content of articles in the three journals, Table 10 presents the percentage of articles in each content category by journal. A focus on professional issues ranges from 22% of articles in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling to 32% in The School Counselor. Both mental health concerns and family issues were the topic of more articles (8% and 11%, respectively) in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling than in the other two journals, whereas educational issues received the most attention in The School Counselor. Coverage of diversity was greatest in Professional School Counseling (10%); coverage of violence also was more prominent in that journal (5%) than in its two predecessors. Topic areas categorized as Other were represented in all three journals in similar proportions.
Core areas of CACREP standards. For Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 74% of articles (661 of 895) were coded for a core area. For The School Counselor, 74% (1,077 of 1,458) of articles were coded as such, whereas the percentage of articles coded for core areas increased to 89% (206 out of 232) for Professional School Counseling. Professional School Counseling also has the greatest percentage of coverage of the social and cultural diversity core area. Distribution of core areas in the three journals is shown in Table 11. Of the core areas, articles about professional identity have been most prominent in all three journals, with the percentage being greatest in current issues of the journals.
According to Wcinrach et al. (1998), concern about the absence of practitioner contributions to the professional counseling literature was voiced as early as 1958, when it was observed that in the first 5 years of the Personnel and Guidance Journal, practitioners represented only 14.9% of contributors. The paucity of practitioner contributions was lamented again in 1984. Between 1978 and 1993, 31% of contributors to the Journal of Counseling and Development were practitioners (Weinrach et al.,). Although the school counseling journals began with an even larger representation of practitioners (66%) in the 1950s, the proportion has been steadily declining. In contrast, the percentage of contributions by university-affiliated authors has been steadily increasing. One wonders if the readership of the journals would similarly reflect the dominance of university interests. The fact that practitioners' contributions were greater early in the history of the journals suggests that as the profession matured, it has become increasingly dominated by university interests. An examination of the editorial board of the Professional School Counselor (February 2000 issue) reveals that of 24 members, only two are affiliated with K-12 school districts, and all editors arc affiliated with universities. The lack of representation of practitioners on the editorial board may imply to school counselors that the journal is inaccessible to them.
In addition to the declining contributions by practitioners, the small percentage of collaborative work by practitioners and university faculty is disappointing. If these journals are to inform the profession, and provide a vehicle for school counseling professionals to contribute to the knowledge base of their field, a stronger presence in the literature is needed. A factor that cannot be ignored is the lack of support school counselors receive for such efforts. While university professors are expected to engage in scholarIy publication and rewarded for doing so, practicing school counselors get little if any time or support for such activity. This is unfortunate, because such contributions enhance the profession.
Practical articles dominated the first years of the publication, which is the time during which practitioners contributed to the greatest extent. Articles with practical application have declined in the early years of the new millennium. This change coincides with the decreased level of contributions from school counselors. It is notable that articles on professional issues were published in the highest proportion in the 1960s, which is consistent with the increase in the number of school counselors at that time.
As the profession grew in numbers and importance, it is logical that issues related to counselors' roles and responsibilities would be of high interest. The proportion of such articles decreased from the 1970s through the 1990s, when it is reasonable to assume that the profession had become more established and defined. However, in the first few years of the present decade, the proportion of articles on professional issues is at the highest level ever. This finding suggests a resurgence of concerns that may be elevated due to the current focus on educational accountability and reform. Pelsma and Cesari (1989) observed that as the definition of counselors' roles has changed, the topics in the journals have reflected this change. The question is whether counselors' roles are again in flux. One criterion for determining whether an occupation has achieved the status of a profession is that proposed by Greenwood (1962), who maintained that an occupation attains professional status when both internal and external consensus is achieved on what services the occupation provides (cited in Poppcn & Thompson, 1974). Greenwood believed that consensus had occurred following the passage of the NDEA. If so, the current resurgence of interest in these questions is puzzling.
Perhaps Gail Farwell's comment (Simmons, 2002b) about the counseling profession applies to school counseling as well. he said, "I still see some of the stuff in '02 as I saw in '52." It is interesting to note that professional issues were least prominent in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. Culbreth, Scarborough, Solomon, and BanksJohnston (2001) found that elementary school counselors reported lower levels of role conflict and role ambiguity than did their counterparts in middle and high school. Elementary school counselors were also more satisfied with their jobs. These findings suggest that the upsurge in current interest in professional issues may reflect an increasing level of role conflict and ambiguity for school counselors.
Articles describing research, quantitative or qualitative, have been maintaining a steady level since the 1960s at a rate of approximately 25%. Although Sink (1999) did not specify exactly what he meant by "balance," one can infer that a greater contribution of research was hoped for. In the 1960s, Greenwood advocated a "scientist-practitioner" approach to the field, arguing that as accountability became more important, it was imperative that school counselors demonstrate the efficacy of their work (Poppen Sc Thompson, 1974). Forty years later, when accountability seems to be even more critical, the profession has yet to increase its research emphasis.
Theoretical approaches have not received much attention in the school counseling literature, with only 112 out of 2,585 articles being theory based. Adlcrian theory has garnered the most attention and has been represented in every decade from the 1960s through the 1990s, although it has yet to be mentioned in the current decade. Behavioral theory has had a similar pattern, with only slightly fewer articles. Play therapy has had a consistent presence from the 1970s through the 1990s, with interest gradually increasing. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy did not appear in the journals until the 1990s, but, due to its recent emergence, it has received the most coverage to date in the 200Os. This theory is gaining in popularity, perhaps due to the limited time available to school counselors to conduct counseling sessions. It is hoped that the current journal will continue to enlighten school counselors about innovations in theory and with research on how each theory performs in practice.
Content analysis revealed a preponderance of articles in all journals focused on professional issues. Approaches and techniques as well as educational and career topics were also widely covered. Although diversity issues might be expected to have been more prominent in the 1960s, attention to this area began to increase in the 1990s. It is hoped that this important area will continue to be prominent. An additional topic of increasing focus is that of violence; and given the current context, this topic should continue to be examined. It is disappointing to discover that issues counselors must deal with in their schools were in general not adequately covered. Wc refer to issues of abuse, death and loss, gender, suicide, and substance abuse. Because counselors in today's world must be familiar with these issues, more extensive space devoted to these topics would be helpful to practitioners. Again, research on effectiveness of programs directed to these issues is sorely needed.
In the 1950s, the profession of school counseling was becoming established and formalized. The fact that half of all articles published in that decade addressed issues of professional identity would be expected during the early development of a profession. By the 1960s, the profession was booming as funding increased and elementary school counseling programs were added. The professional roots in vocational guidance arc apparent in the attention to educational and career counseling, which comprised 25% of the articles in that decade. Declining school enrollments in the 1970s caused a reduction in school counselors, and by 1987, a task force examined school counseling as a profession at risk. The next year, comprehensive developmental guidance programs were promoted as an antidote for the profession's problems, and the 1990s saw increasing energy and attention devoted to this movement. This interest is reflected in the increasing percentage of articles on human growth and development, along with the gradual return to a focus on professional identity topics. A greater proportion of articles on research and program evaluation is also seen in the 200Os, which is consistent with the model's emphasis on this component. Beginning in the 1990s, attention to multiculturalism increased after the publication of a special issue, Multiculturalism as a Fourth Force in Counseling, of the /owr»*/ o/" CoMMjg/w^ *»*i .DgpeZopwfgwf. Less than 2% of articles in the 1950s had multicultural content, whereas by the 200Os, that proportion had increased to 13%. In the early 200Os, the profession worked to develop and promote a national model of school counseling, whereas the Education Trust initiative was directed toward transforming the education of school counselors. These important developments, coupled with the national attention to educational reform, may account for the resurgence of articles discussing professional issues and professional identity.
The three journals did not vary dramatically in the extent of their coverage of most areas, with the possible exception of the greater attention to approachcs and techniques as well as family issues in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and the stronger emphasis on educational and career-oriented topics in The School Counselor. These different emphases might be a refection of the different ages and consequent concerns of the populations with which readers of these two journals dealt. It is encouraging to note that the current journal has devoted the greatest proportion of articles to diversity, and that violence, a pressing concern for all, is also getting much-needed attention.
If school counseling students are to develop a professional habit of reading the literature, it would be helpful if article topics were related to the core areas described in the 2001 CACREP Standards. In comparing these standards with the foci of articles in the journals, it is notable that the professional identity core is more than adequately covered. This may be quite usent! for soon-to-be counselors acculturating to their profession. The core areas of social and cultural diversity as well as human growth and development have also been a consistent presence in the literature. The declining emphasis on helping relationships, noted since the 1980s, may be explained by the current emphasis on classroom guidance over responsive services. It is hoped that even when counselors spend less time counseling individual students, they are well-informed and skilled Li their interventions. Because of time pressures in schools, group work is widely used; it is unfortunate that more attention has not been devoted to group counseling. The most conspicuous absence of the core areas is that of assessment, which has received diminishing coverage since the 1960s. Although school counselors typically do not administer psychological or diagnostic tests, they are often in consultation with psychologists and diagnosticians regarding testing results and, therefore, need to be knowledgeable in this area. Widi only 1% of articles in the 200Os to date (and only 2% in each of the two preceding decades) devoted to these tests, counselors will have to search elsewhere in the literature for this important information. Research and evaluation, while consistently recommended, still occupies a small proportion of space in the journals.
In 1986, lycwis, Hayes, and Lewis commented on the future needs of professional counselors. While their comments were not specific to school counselors, several of their forecasts apply to that specialty. An examination of their projections to see whether the literature has addressed these needs seems appropriate at this milestone. These authors predicted that counselors would need a strong sense of professional identity. The considerable attention devoted to this topic in the literature perhaps indicates professional identity is an ongoing quest. The need for counselors to have the ability to work with diverse populations was also noted, and we are pleased to see the increasing attention to diversity issues in the school counseling journals. A developmental orientation was recommended by Lewis et al. for future counselors, and the journals have mirrored the concern of those schools that have placed major emphasis on developmental counseling programs. The journals perhaps have taken more of a professional issues approach than one of examining developmental issues as a separate focus. A corollary to the developmental perspective is the need for holistic, interdisciplinary orientation. Although theory has not been a major focus of the school counseling journals, it is notable that a variety of theories have been covered. It is hoped this coverage has expanded the awareness of school counselors about available approaches.
This analysis has examined the history of the school counseling journals. Goodyear (1984) noted that the counseling journals speak to two constituencies, academicians and practitioners. It appears this dual audience is a difficult one to serve, in providing material of interest to both groups and providing an outlet for publication for both groups. The profession of school counseling is firmly established with a professional organization celebrating its 50th anniversary, an ethical code, training standards, a recognized body of knowledge, and a credenualing process. The journals' emphasis on professional issues indicates that the profession still appears to be struggling with an "identity" crisis. Once such issues are resolved, the profession will be able to dedicate more of its resources to researching and evaluating current practices, which have taken a back seat in the journals and in the profession for too long.
It was not until the middle of the 20th century that the field of school counseling attained the status of a profession.
Practical articles-those with direct application to counseling practicerepresented half of all articles published from 1970 to 2000, but have a lesser presence in the new millennium.
The proportion of articles on professional issues is at the highest level ever, suggesting concerns may be elevated due to the current focus on accountability and reform.
Representation in school counseling journals by school counselors (K-12 affiliations) has decreased markedly from the 1950s to the present.
There were fairly equivalent numbers of articles emphasizing educational achievement alone and articles simultaneously addressing both.
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Sheri Bauman, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Educational Psychology Department. Email: sherib@u. arizona. edu.
Jason Siegel and Lia Falco are doctoral students in the Educational Psychology Department.
Gerald Szymanski is a doctoral student in the Higher Education Department.
April Davis and Karen Seabolt were students in the program at the time this article was written. all are in the College of Education, University of Arizona, Tucson.