D. H. Lawrence

D. H. Lawrence: (David Herbert Lawrence), 1885–1930, English author, one of the primary shapers of 20th-century fiction.

Life

The son of a Nottingham coal miner, Lawrence was a sickly child, devoted to his refined but domineering mother, who insisted upon his education. He graduated from the teacher-training course at University College, Nottingham, in 1905 and became a schoolmaster in a London suburb. In 1909 some of his poems were published in the English Review, edited by Ford Madox Ford, who was also instrumental in the publication of Lawrence's first novel, The White Peacock (1911).

Lawrence eloped to the Continent in 1912 with Frieda von Richthofen Weekley, a German noblewoman who was the wife of a Nottingham professor; they were married in 1914. During World War I the couple was forced to remain in England; Lawrence's outspoken opposition to the war and Frieda's German birth aroused suspicion that they were spies. In 1919 they left England, returning only for brief visits. Their nomadic existence was spent variously in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Australia, the United States (New Mexico), and Mexico. Lawrence died at the age of 45 of tuberculosis, a disease with which he had struggled for years.

Works

Lawrence believed that industrialized Western culture was dehumanizing because it emphasized intellectual attributes to the exclusion of natural or physical instincts. He thought, however, that this culture was in decline and that humanity would soon evolve into a new awareness of itself as being a part of nature. One aspect of this "blood consciousness" would be an acceptance of the need for sexual fulfillment. His three great novels, Sons and Lovers (1913), The Rainbow (1915), and Women in Love (1921), concern the consequences of trying to deny humanity's union with nature.

After World War I, Lawrence began to believe that society needed to be reorganized under one superhuman leader. The novels containing this theme—Aaron's Rod (1922), Kangaroo (1923), and The Plumed Serpent (1926)—are all considered failures. Lawrence's most controversial novel is Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928), the story of an English noblewoman who finds love and sexual fulfillment with her husband's gamekeeper. Because their lovemaking is described in intimate detail (for the 1920s), the novel caused a sensation and was banned in England and the United States until 1959.

All of Lawrence's novels are written in a lyrical, sensuous, often rhapsodic prose style. He had an extraordinary ability to convey a sense of specific time and place, and his writings often reflected his complex personality. Lawrence's works include volumes of stories, poems, and essays. He also wrote a number of plays, travel books such as Etruscan Places (1932), and volumes of literary criticism, notably Studies in Classic American Literature (1916).

Bibliography

See the Portable D. H. Lawrence, ed. by D. Trilling (1947); his collected letters (ed. with introduction by H. T. Moore, 1962); his complete poems, ed. by V. De Sola Pinto and F. W. Roberts (1977); biographies by J. M. Murray (1931), G. Trease (1973), H. T. Moore (rev. ed. 1974), J. Meyers (1990), P. Callow (1998 and 2003), and J. Worthen (2005), and series biography by J. Worthen (Vol. I, 1991), M. Kinkead-Weekes (Vol. II, 1996), and D. Ellis (Vol III., 1998); D. H. Lawrence: The Story of a Marriage (1994) by B. Maddox; and The Cambridge Biography; studies by D. Cavitch (1970), R. E. Pritchard (1972), S. Spender, ed. (1973), S. Sanders (1974), and J. Meyers (1982 and 1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Complete Critical Guide to D.H. Lawrence
Fiona Becket.
Routledge, 2002
FREE! Sons and Lovers
D. H. Lawrence.
Viking Press, 1913
The Rainbow
Kate Flint; D. H. Lawrence.
Oxford University Press, 1997
Lady Chatterley's Lover
D. H. Lawrence.
Grove Press, 1959 (3rd edition)
Women in Love
D. H. Lawrence.
Viking Press, 1960
D. H. Lawrence: A Reference Companion
Paul Poplawski.
Greenwood Press, 1996
D. H. Lawrence: The Man Who Lived
Robert B. Partlow Jr.; Harry T. Moore.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1980
D.H. Lawrence: New Worlds
Keith Cushman; Earl G. Ingersoll.
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003
The Vital Art of D.H. Lawrence: Vision and Expression
Jack Stewart.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1999
The Priest of Love: A Life of D. H. Lawrence
Harry T. Moore.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1977 (Revised edition)
D. H. Lawrence: Modes of Fictional Style
Bibhu Padhi.
Whitston, 1989
States of Estrangement: The Novels of D. H. Lawrence, 1912-1917
Wayne Templeton.
Whitston, 1989
The Later D. H. Lawrence
William York Tindall; D. H. Lawrence.
Alfred A. Knopf, 1952
A "Strange Sapience": The Creative Imagination of D.H. Lawrence
Daniel Dervin.
University of Massachusetts Press, 1984
D. H. Lawrence: Future Primitive
Dolores Lachapelle.
University of North Texas Press, 1996
Reclaiming D. H. Lawrence: Contemporary Writers Speak Out
Gary Adelman.
Bucknell University Press, 2002
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