Gabriele D'Annunzio

Gabriele D'Annunzio (gäbrēĕ´lā dän-nōōn´tsyō) 1863–1938, Italian poet, novelist, dramatist, and soldier, b. Pescara. He went to Rome in 1881 and there began his literary career. Considered by some to be the greatest Italian poet since Dante, he expressed in many of his works the desire to live in a more heroic age, an age that he attempted to create in the events of his life. The richly sensuous imagery of even his early poetry—Le primavere della mala pianta [the springtime of the evil plant] (1880) and Canto nuovo [new song] (1882)—displayed his unrivaled literary craftsmanship. His novels—Il piacere (1889, tr. The Child of Pleasure, 1898), in which he expresses his hero's and his own credo that a person's life should be made a work of art; L'innocente (1892, tr. The Intruder, 1898, and The Victim, 1914); Giovanni Episcopo (1892, tr. Episcopo & Company, 1896); Il trionfo della morte (1894, tr. The Triumph of Death, 1896); and Alcione (1904)—show the same creative handling of the Italian language, but many of these works are regarded as shallow and theatrical. D'Annunzio was also a prolific journalist and a relentless self-promoter.

The outbreak of World War I found him in France, where he had lived since 1910. He returned to Italy, where his extreme nationalist oratory had much to do with persuading Italy to join the Allies, and he fought with spectacular daring in the air force. In Sept., 1919, he led an expedition (known as the march on Ronchi) against Fiume, where he established a rule opposed by both the Italian government and the rest of Europe, which lasted until Jan., 1921. D'Annunzio, one of the few writers to be courted by Mussolini, was an early exponent of fascism, and his troops in the Fiume raid introduced the black shirt that became the uniform of the fascists.

His book Notturrno (1921) is a moving analysis of sensations and memories during weeks of blindness from which he partially recovered. He added little in later life to the long list of his works. His plays include Il sogno d'un mattino di primavera (1897, tr. The Dream of a Spring Morning, 1902), Il sogno d'un tramonto d'autunno (1898, tr. The Dream of an Autumn Sunset, 1904), La città morta (1898, tr. The Dead City, 1902), and Francesca (1902, tr. Francesca da Rimini, 1902). Most of these were written during the time of his love affair with Eleonora Duse, which he described with cruel candor in the novel Il fuoco (1900; tr. The Flame of Life, 1900). Mussolini appointed him (1937) president of the Royal Italian Academy, but he died before taking office.

See biographies by G. Griffin (1935, repr. 1970), C. Klopp (1988), J. Woodhouse (2001), and L. Hughes-Hallett (2013); studies by A. Rhodes (1960), G. Gullace (1966), R. Forcella (4 vol., 1926–37, repr. 1973), and M. Ledeen (1977) and (2001).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

FREE! Francesca Da Rimini
Gabriele D'Annunzio; Arthur Symons.
Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1902
Representative Continental Dramas: Revolutionary and Transitional
Montrose J. Moses.
Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, 1924
Librarian’s tip: "The Daughter of Jorio (1904)" by Gabriele D'Annunzio begins on p. 265
Noble Essences: A Book of Characters
Osbert Sitwell.
Little, Brown & Company, 1950
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Gabriele D'Annunzio"
FREE! Iconoclasts: A Book of Dramatists
James Huneker.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905
Librarian’s tip: Chap. X "Duse and D'Annunzio"
Notes on Novelists: With Some Other Notes
Henry James.
Biblo and Tannen, 1969
Librarian’s tip: "Gabriele D'Annunzio, 1902" begins on p. 245
Studies from Ten Literatures
Ernest Augustus Boyd.
C. Scribner's Sons, 1925
Librarian’s tip: "Gabriele D'Annunzio" begins on p. 147
A Study of the Modern Drama: A Handbook for the Study and Appreciation of the Best Plays, European, English and American, of the Last Half Century
Barrett H. Clark.
D. Appleton, 1925
Librarian’s tip: "Gabriele D'Annunzio" begins on p. 185
Dictionary of Italian Literature
Peter Bondanella; Julia Conaway Bondanella; Jody Robin Shiffman.
Greenwood Press, 1996 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio, Gabriele" begins on p. 149
Mussolini
Laura Fermi.
University of Chicago Press, 1966
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Gabriele D'Annunzio begins on p. 128
Italy from Napoleon to Mussolini
René Albrecht-Carrié.
Columbia University Press, 1950
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio Again" begins on p. 127
Fascist and Liberal Visions of War: Fuller, Liddell Hart, Douhet, and Other Modernists
Azar Gat.
Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio, Marinetti, and the Air" begins on p. 43
Goliath: The March of Fascism
G. A. Borgese.
The Viking Press, 1937
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio" begins on p. 86
Readings in Twentieth-Century European History
Alexander J. Baltzly; A. William Salomone.
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio against the World" begins on p. 135
Puccini among Friends
Vincent Seligman.
Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1938
Librarian’s tip: "D'Annunzio, 'Conchita' and Others (June 1906-January 1907)" begins on p. 79
The Search for Modern Tragedy: Aesthetic Fascism in Italy and France
Mary Ann Frese Witt.
Cornell University Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Two "D'Annunzio's Nietzschean Tragedy and the Aesthetic Politics of Fusion"
Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel
Pericles Lewis.
Cambridge University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Five "Il Vate Nazionale: D'Annunzio and the Discourse of Embodiment"
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