George Eliot

Eliot, George

George Eliot, pseud. of Mary Ann or Marian Evans, 1819–80, English novelist, b. Arbury, Warwickshire. One of the great English novelists, she was reared in a strict atmosphere of evangelical Protestantism but eventually rebelled and renounced organized religion totally. Her early schooling was supplemented by assiduous reading, and the study of languages led to her first literary work, Life of Jesus (1846), a translation from the German of D. F. Strauss. After her father's death she became subeditor (1851) of the Westminster Review, contributed articles, and came to know many of the literary people of the day. In 1854 she began a long and happy union with G. H. Lewes, which she regarded as marriage, though it involved social ostracism and could have no legal sanction because Lewes's estranged wife was living. Throughout his life Lewes encouraged Evans in her literary career; indeed, it is possible that without him Evans, subject to periods of depression and in constant need of reassurance, would not have written a word.

In 1856, Mary Ann began Scenes of Clerical Life, a series of realistic sketches first appearing in Blackwood's Magazine under the pseudonym Lewes chose for her, George Eliot. Although not a popular success, the work was well received by literary critics, particularly Dickens and Thackeray. Three novels of provincial life followed—Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), and Silas Marner (1861). She visited Italy in 1860 and again in 1861 before she brought out in the Cornhill Magazine (1862–63) her historical romance Romola, a story of Savonarola. Felix Holt (1866), a political novel, was followed by The Spanish Gypsy (1868), a dramatic poem. Middlemarch (1871–72), a portrait of life in a provincial town, is considered her masterpiece. She wrote one more novel, Daniel Deronda (1876); the satirical Impressions of Theophrastus Such (1879); and verse, which was never popular and is now seldom read. Lewes died in 1878, and in 1880 she married a close friend of both Lewes and herself, John W. Cross, who later edited George Eliot's Life as Related in Her Letters and Journals (3 vol., 1885–86). Writing about life in small rural towns, George Eliot was primarily concerned with the responsibility that people assume for their lives and with the moral choices they must inevitably make. Although highly serious, her novels are marked by compassion and a subtle humor.

See her letters (ed. by G. S. Haight, 7 vol., 1954–56); her collected essays (ed. by T. Pinney, 1964); biographies by L. and E. Hanson (1952), G. S. Haight (1968), J. Uglow (1987), F. R. Karl (1995), R. Ashton (1997), and K. Hughes (1999); studies by E. S. Haldane (1927), J. Thale (1959), B. Hardy (1967), D. Carroll, ed. (1971), T. S. Pearce (1973), and G. Beer (1983).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

George Eliot: A Biography
Blanche Colton Williams.
Macmillan, 1936
The Critical Response to George Eliot
Karen L. Pangallo.
Greenwood Press, 1994
The Novels of George Eliot
Jerome Thale.
Columbia University Press, 1959
Librarian’s tip: This is a book of literary criticism
The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot
George Eliot.
Modern Library, 1940
Librarian’s tip: This includes Adam Bede, The Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, and Romola
FREE! Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life
George Eliot.
Harper & Brothers, 1873
Compassion: The Culture and Politics of An Emotion
Lauren Berlant.
Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Moving Pictures: George Eliot and Melodrama" and Chap. 6 "Provoking George Eliot"
George Eliot and the British Empire
Nancy Henry.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
George Eliot and the Ambiguity of Murder
Alley, Henry.
Studies in the Novel, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1993
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
George Eliot and the Fetish of Realism
Logan, Peter Melville.
Studies in the Literary Imagination, Vol. 35, No. 2, Fall 2002
The Victorian Sage: Studies in Argument
John Holloway.
Norton, 1965
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "George Eliot"
Providence and Love: Studies in Wordsworth, Channing, Myers, George Eliot, and Ruskin
John Beer.
Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "George Eliot and the Cambridge Ethos"
The Stone and the Scorpion: The Female Subject of Desire in the Novels of Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy
Judith Mitchell.
Greenwood Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "George Eliot"
George Lewes and George Eliot: A Review of Records
Anna Theresa Kitchel.
The John Day Company, 1933
FREE! George Eliot's Life as Related in Her Letters and Journals
J. W. Cross; George Eliot.
Harper & Brothers, vol.3, 1885
Marian Evans & George Eliot: A Biography
Lawrence Hanson; Elisabeth Hanson.
Oxford University Press, 1952
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