Emma (by Jane Austen)

Austen, Jane

Jane Austen (ô´stən), 1775–1817, English novelist. The daughter of a clergyman, she spent the first 25 years of her life at "Steventon," her father's Hampshire vicarage. Here her first novels, Pride and Prejudice,Sense and Sensibility, and Northanger Abbey, were written, although they were not published until much later. On her father's retirement in 1801, the family moved to Bath for several years and then to Southampton, settling finally at Chawton Cottage, near Alton, Hampshire, which was Jane's home for the rest of her life.

Northanger Abbey, a satire on the Gothic romance, was sold to a publisher for £10 in 1803, but as it was not published, was bought back by members of the family and was finally issued posthumously. The novels published in Austen's lifetime were Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1816). Persuasion was issued in 1818 with Northanger Abbey. The author's name did not appear on any of her title pages, and although her own friends knew of her authorship, she received little public recognition in her lifetime.

Jane Austen's novels are comedies of manners that depict the self-contained world of provincial ladies and gentlemen. Most of her works revolve around the delicate business of providing husbands for marriageable daughters. She is particularly noted for her vivid delineations and lively interplay of character, her superb sense of comic irony, and her moral firmness. She ridicules the silly, the affected, and the stupid, ranging in her satire from light portraiture in her early works to more scornful exposures in her later novels. Her writing was subjected to the most careful polishing. She was quite aware of her special excellences and limitations, comparing herself to a miniaturist. Today she is regarded as one of the great masters of the English novel. Her minor works include her Juvenilia, the novel Lady Susan, and the fragments The Watsons and Sanditon.

See her letters (4th ed., ed. by D. La Faye, 2011); biographies by J. A. Hodge (1972), J. Halperin (1986), P. Honan (1988), V. G. Myer (1997), D. Nokes (1997), C. Tomalin (1997), C. Shields (2001), and P. Byrne (2013); studies by A. W. Litz (1965), F. W. Bradbook (1966), A. M. Duckworth (1971), K. Kroeber (1971), F. B. Pinion (1973), S. M. Tave (1973), C. Johnson (1988), C. Harman (2010), R. M. Brownstein (2011), R. and L. Adkins (2013), and J. Barchas (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Emma
Jane Austen; James Kinsley.
Oxford University Press, 1998
Jane Austen's Emma
Harold Bloom.
Chelsea House, 1987
Librarian’s tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Student Companion to Jane Austen
Debra Teachman.
Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Emma (1815)"
Jane Austen and the Romantic Poets
William Deresiewicz.
Columbia University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Four "Emma: Ambiguous Relationships"
The Riddles of Emma. (Miscellany)
Sheehan, Colleen A.
Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal, Vol. 22, Annual 2000
Emma and Her Influence on Future Self-Deceiving Literary Heroines. (Miscellany)
Kaplan, Zoe C.
Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal, Vol. 22, Annual 2000
The Last Pages of Emma: Austen's Epithalamium. (Miscellany)
Emsley, Sarah.
Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal, Vol. 23, Annual 2001
Men of Sense and Silly Wives: The Confusions of Mr. Knightley
Waldron, Mary.
Studies in the Novel, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1996
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Following Footpaths in Emma: Actual and Metaphorical. (the Country and the City)
Park, Julia.
Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal, Vol. 23, Annual 2001
Jane Austen: New Perspectives
Janet Todd.
Holmes & Meier, 1983
Librarian’s tip: "Two Faces of Emma" begins on p. 248, and "Emma and Its Critics: The Value of Tact" begins on p. 257
"Improper and Dangerous Distinctions": Female Relationships and Erotic Domination in 'Emma.' (Jane Austen)
Korba, Susan M.
Studies in the Novel, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1997
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Recreating Jane Austen
John Wiltshire.
Cambridge University Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Emma begins on p. 125
A Companion to Jane Austen Studies
Robert Thomas Lambdin; Laura Cooner Lambdin.
Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Lampoon and Lampoonability: Emma and the Riddle of Popularity" and Chap. 8 "'And Very Good Lists They Were': Select Critical Readings of Jane Austen's Emma"
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