Salammbo

Flaubert, Gustave

Gustave Flaubert (güstäv´ flōbĕr´), 1821–80, French novelist, regarded as one of the supreme masters of the realistic novel. He was a scrupulous, slow writer, intent on the exact word (le mot juste) and complete objectivity. The son of a surgeon, he studied law unsuccessfully in Paris and returned home to devote himself to writing. Because of a severe nervous malady, probably epilepsy, he spent much of his life at Croisset, near Rouen, with his mother and niece. Nonetheless, he also became an established figure in the Parisian social and literary world. In 1856, after five years of work, Flaubert published his masterpiece, Madame Bovary, in a Paris journal. Portraying the frustrations and love affairs of a romantic young woman married to a dull provincial doctor, the novel is written in a superbly controlled style. The book resulted in his being prosecuted on moral grounds, but he won the case. It was followed by Salammbô (1863), a meticulously documented novel of ancient Carthage; a revision of an earlier novel, L'Éducation sentimentale (1870); The Temptation of St. Anthony (1874); and Three Tales (1877), which contained the great short story "A Simple Heart." After his death his unfinished satire Bouvard and Pécuchet was published (1881). His correspondence, including that with George Sand and the letters to his niece Caroline, appeared in nine volumes (1926–33).

See The Selected Letters of Flaubert (ed. and tr. by F. Steegmuller, 1954); biographies by E. Starkie (Vol. I, 1967; Vol. II, 1971), G. Wall (2002), and F. Brown (2006); study by V. H. Brombert (1966); H. James, Notes on Novelists (1914), and F. Steegmuller, Flaubert and Madame Bovary (rev. ed. 1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

FREE! Salammbo: A Romance of Ancient Carthage
Gustave Flaubert; M. French Sheldon.
Saxon, 1885
Legendary Figures: Ancient History in Modern Novels
Clayton Koelb.
University of Nebraska Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "The Legendary Past: Gustave Flaubert's Salammbo"
Gustave Flaubert
Harold Bloom.
Chelsea House, 1989
Librarian’s tip: "The Ritual of Reading Salammbo" begins on p. 75
Breaking the Chain: Women, Theory, and French Realist Fiction
Naomi Schor.
Columbia University Press, 1985
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Salammbo Bound"
Impotence and Excess: Male Hysteria and Androgyny in Flaubert's Salammbo
Rubino, Nancy.
Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Fall-Winter 2000
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