Japanese Language

Japanese

Japanese (jăp´ənēz´), language of uncertain origin that is spoken by more than 125 million people, most of whom live in Japan. There are also many speakers of Japanese in the Ryukyu Islands, Korea, Taiwan, parts of the United States, and Brazil. Japanese appears to be unrelated to any other language; however, some scholars see a kinship with the Korean tongue because the grammars of the two are very similar. Some linguists also link both Japanese and Korean to the Altaic languages. Japanese exhibits a degree of agglutination. In an agglutinative language, different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word. Japanese lacks tones, but has a musical accent and usually stresses all syllables equally. There is no declension for nouns and pronouns, whose grammatical relationships are shown by particles that follow them. Verbs are inflected and generally are placed at the end of a sentence. Extensive use of honorific forms is especially characteristic of Japanese; varying constructions are used to indicate differences in the social status among the individual speaking, the individual addressed, and the individual spoken about.

In the 3d and 4th cent. AD, the Japanese borrowed the Chinese writing system of ideographic characters. Since Chinese is not inflected and since Chinese writing is ideographic rather than phonetic, the Chinese characters do not completely fill the needs of the inflected Japanese language in the sphere of writing. In the 8th cent. AD, two phonetic syllabaries, or kana, were therefore devised for the recording of the Japanese language. They are used along with the ideographic characters (or kanji characters) to indicate the syllables that form suffixes and particles. The direction of writing is usually from top to bottom in vertical columns and from right to left. In scientific texts horizontal writing from left to right is sometimes employed. The Roman alphabet has also been used increasingly to transcribe Japanese. Since several thousand characters and two sets of kana are necessary for reading Japanese literature and periodicals, a need for simplification was felt when universal literacy became a national goal. Thus, after World War II, many kanji characters were simplified, and the number generally used was limited to about 2,000. Through another reform, phonetic kana characters are now used to correspond more closely to modern pronunciation than previously was the case. The large number of its speakers and the high level of cultural, economic, and political development of the Japanese people make Japanese one of the leading languages of the world.

See P. G. O'Neill and S. Yanada, An Introduction to Written Japanese (1963); R. A. Miller, The Japanese Language (1967); S. Ono, The Origins of the Japanese Language (1970); H. A. Okamoto, Rule for Conversational Rituals in Japanese (1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Japanese Communication: Language and Thought in Context
Senko K. Maynard.
University of Hawaii Press, 1997
Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People
Shigeko Okamoto; Janet S. Shibamoto Smith.
Oxford University Press, 2004
The Development of Language Processing Strategies: A Cross-Linguistic Study between Japanese and English
Reiko Mazuka.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998
The Word "Is" the Thing: The "Kotodama" Belief in Japanese Communication
Hara, Kazuya.
ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 58, No. 3, Fall 2001
Language: Instrument of Change for Japanese Women?
Farnsley, Kathy Wolfe.
Women and Language, Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall 1995
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Teaching Language, Learning Culture
Richard M. Swiderski.
Bergin & Garvey, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "Language Ideas, Ideals, Ideologies: Japanese and English"
Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues
James W. Tollefson.
Erlbaum, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Language Policy in Modern Japanese Education"
Japan: Beyond the "Lessons of Growth."
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa.
Social Justice, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1996
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Lexical Evidence for Early Contact between Indonesian Languages and Japanese
Kumar, Ann; Rose, Phil.
Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 39, No. 2, December 2000
Japanese Cybercultures
Nanette Gottlieb; Mark McLelland; David Gauntlett.
Routledge, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "Language, Representation and Power: Burakumin and the Internet"
Asian Popular Culture
John A. Lent.
Westview Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "Crossing Ethnolinguistic Boundaries: A Preliminary Look at the Gaijin Tarento in Japan"
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