Edith Wharton

Wharton, Edith Newbold Jones

Edith Newbold Jones Wharton, 1862–1937, American novelist, b. New York City, noted for her subtle, ironic, and superbly crafted fictional studies of New York society at the turn of the 20th cent. The daughter of a socially elect family, she was educated privately in New York and in Europe. In 1885 she married Edward Wharton, a Boston banker; after the first few years of marriage Edward Wharton became mentally ill, and the burden of caring for him fell upon his wife. Finally, in 1913, after she had settled permanently in France, Edith Wharton terminated the marriage by divorce.

Her early stories and tales were collected in The Greater Inclination (1899), Crucial Instances (1901), and The Descent of Man (1904); somewhat narrow in scope, they nevertheless show the unity of mood and the lucid, polished prose style of her more mature works. Much of her writing bears a resemblance to the fiction of Henry James, who was her close friend. However, the similarities are superficial, and in her best and most characteristic novels—The House of Mirth (1905) and The Age of Innocence (1920; Pulitzer Prize)—she asserts herself as a distinctive artist. Recreating the atmosphere of the unadventurous, ceremonious upper-class society of New York, she depicts in these and other works the cruelty of social convention, the changing fashions in morality, and the conflicts that arise between money values and moral values.

In the novella Ethan Frome (1911)—one of her best-known, most successful, and least characteristic works—Wharton evokes the tragic fate of three people against the stark background of rural New England. Among her many other novels are The Valley of Decision (1902), a historical novel of 18th-century Italy; The Custom of the Country (1913); Hudson River Bracketed (1929) and its sequel, The Gods Arrive (1932); and an unfinished work, The Buccaneers (1938). Collections of her short stories include Xingu and Other Stories (1916), Certain People (1930), and Ghosts (1937). Wharton also wrote travel books (e.g., Italian Backgrounds, 1905), books on interior design and architecture (e.g., The Decoration of Houses, 1897; Italian Villas and Their Gardens, 1904), literary criticism, and poetry. In 1915 she was awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor by the French government for her services during World War I.

Bibliography

See her collected stories (2 vol., 2001); her autobiography, A Backward Glance (1934, repr. 1998); her letters, ed. by R. W. B. Lewis (1988); biographies by L. Auchincloss (1971), R. W. B. Lewis (1975, repr. 1985), S. Benstock (1994), E. Dwight (1994), and H. Lee (2007); studies by M. B. McDowell (1976, repr. 1991), C. G. Wolff (1977, repr. 1995), E. Ammons (1980), G. Walton (rev. ed. 1982), G. S. Rahi (1983), D. Holbrook (1991), B. A. White (1991), K. A. Fedorko (1995), C. J. Singley (1995), J. Dyman (1996), J. Beer (1997), S. B. Wright (1997), A. R. Tintner (1999), and H. Hoeller (2000).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

A Historical Guide to Edith Wharton
Carol J. Singley.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Edith Wharton
Robert Morss Lovett.
Robert M. McBride, 1925
Ethan Frome
Edith Wharton; Elaine Showalter.
Oxford University Press, 1998
The House of Mirth
Edith Wharton; Martha Banta.
Oxford University Press, 1999
FREE! The Age of Innocence
Edith Wharton.
D. Appleton, 1920
Student Companion to Edith Wharton
Melissa Mcfarland Pennell.
Greenwood Press, 2003
Edith Wharton's Prisoners of Consciousness: A Study of Theme and Technique in the Tales
Evelyn E. Fracasso.
Greenwood Press, 1994
The Faith of Our Feminists: A Study in the Novels of Edith Wharton, Ellen Glasgow, Willa Cather
Josephine Lurie Jessup.
Biblo and Tannen, 1965
After the Fall: The Demeter-Persephone Myth in Wharton, Cather, and Glasgow
Josephine Donovan.
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1989
Librarian’s tip: Includes "Edith Wharton and the Pomegranate Seed"
FREE! Summer: A Novel
Edith Wharton.
D. Appleton, 1917
The Buccaneers
Edith Wharton.
D. Appleton-Century, 1938
The Reef
Edith Wharton; Stephen Orgel.
Oxford University Press, 1998
Wretched Exotic: Essays on Edith Wharton in Europe
Katherine Joslin; Alan Price.
Peter Lang, 1993
Solitude and Society in the Works of Herman Melville and Edith Wharton
Linda Costanzo Cahir.
Greenwood Press, 1999
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