Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway, 1899–1961, American novelist and short-story writer, b. Oak Park, Ill. one of the great American writers of the 20th cent.

Life

The son of a country doctor, Hemingway worked as a reporter for the Kansas City Star after graduating from high school in 1917. During World War I he served as an ambulance driver in France and in the Italian infantry and was wounded just before his 19th birthday. Later, while working in Paris as a correspondent for the Toronto Star, he became involved with the expatriate literary and artistic circle surrounding Gertrude Stein. During the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway served as a correspondent on the loyalist side. He fought in World War II and then settled in Cuba in 1945. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime, he moved to Idaho. He was increasingly plagued by ill health and mental problems, and in July, 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself.

Work

Hemingway's fiction usually focuses on people living essential, dangerous lives—soldiers, fishermen, athletes, bullfighters—who meet the pain and difficulty of their existence with stoic courage. His celebrated literary style, influenced by Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein, is direct, terse, muscular, and often monotonous, yet particularly suited to his elemental subject matter.

Hemingway's first books, Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923), In Our Time (short stories, 1924), and The Torrents of Spring (a novel, 1926), attracted attention primarily because of his literary style. With the publication of The Sun Also Rises (1926), he was recognized as the spokesman of the "lost generation" (so called by Gertrude Stein). The novel concerns a group of psychologically bruised, disillusioned expatriates living in postwar Paris, who take psychic refuge in such immediate physical activities as eating, drinking, traveling, brawling, and lovemaking.

His next important novel, A Farewell to Arms (1929), tells of a tragic wartime love affair between an ambulance driver and an English nurse. Hemingway also published such volumes of short stories as Men without Women (1927) and Winner Take Nothing (1933), as well as The Fifth Column, a play. His First Forty-nine Stories (1938) includes such famous short stories as "The Killers," "The Undefeated," and "The Snows of Kilimanjaro." Hemingway's nonfiction works, Death in the Afternoon (1932), about bullfighting, and Green Hills of Africa (1935), about big-game hunting, glorify virility, bravery, and the virtue of a primal challenge to life.

From his experience in the Spanish Civil War came Hemingway's great novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), which, in detailing an incident in the war, argues for human brotherhood. His novella The Old Man and the Sea (1952) celebrates the indomitable courage of an aged Cuban fisherman. Among Hemingway's other works are the novels To Have and Have Not (1937) and Across the River and into the Trees (1950); he also edited an anthology of stories, Men at War (1942). Posthumous publications include A Moveable Feast (1964, restored ed. 2009), a memoir of Paris in the 1920s; the novels Islands in the Stream (1970) and True at First Light (1999), a safari saga begun in 1954 and edited by his son Patrick; and The Nick Adams Stories (1972), a collection that includes previously unpublished pieces.

Bibliography

See his letters, ed. by C. Baker (1989), by M. J. Bruccoli (1996), and by S. Spanier et al. (2 vol., 2011–); biographies by C. Baker (1969, rev. ed. 1980), J. Meyers (1986), M. S. Reynolds (5 vol. 1987–99), K. Lynn (1988), and J. R. Mellow (1993); P. Hendrickson's biographical Hemingway's Boat: Everything He Loved in Life, and Lost, 1934–1961 (2011); B. Vejdovsky and M. Hemingway, Hemingway: A Life in Pictures (2011); P. Young, Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration (rev. ed. 1966); C. Baker, Hemingway, the Writer as Artist (4th ed. 1972), H. S. Villard and J. Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War (1989), and J. McLendon, Papa (1990); M. S. Reynolds, Hemingway: An Annotated Chronology (1991).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Student Companion to Ernest Hemingway
Lisa Tyler.
Greenwood Press, 2001
Ernest Hemingway: Seven Decades of Criticism
Linda Wagner-Martin.
Michigan State University Press, 1998
Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms
Harold Bloom.
Chelsea House, 1987
Librarian’s tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Blowing the Bridge: Essays on Hemingway and For Whom the Bell Tolls
Rena Sanderson.
Greenwood Press, 1992
Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents
Patricia Dunlavy Valenti.
Greenwood Press, 2002
Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea
Harold Bloom.
Chelsea House, 1999
Librarian’s tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice
Lawrence R. Broer; Gloria Holland.
University of Alabama Press, 2002
Ernest Hemingway and the Nobel Prize for Literature
Svensson, Ove G.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Redefining Remate: Hemingway's Professed Approach to Writing A Moveable Feast
Del Gizzo, Suzanne.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Pilar and Maria: Hemingway's Feminist Homage to the "New Woman of Spain" in for Whom the Bell Tolls
Guill, Stacey.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Hunting, Fishing, and the Cramp of Ethics in Ernest Hemingway's the Old Man and the Sea, Green Hills of Africa, and under Kilimanjaro
Hediger, Ryan.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Hemingway's Commedia Dell'Arte Story?: "Out of Season"
Knodt, Ellen Andrews.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Fall 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Race-Ing Hemingway: Revisions of Masculinity And/as Whiteness in Ernest Hemingway's Green Hills of Africa and under Kilimanjaro
Armengol-Carrera, Josep M.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Fall 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
When Hemingway Hated Paris: Divorce Proceedings, Contemplations of Suicide, and the Deleted Chapters of the Sun Also Rises
Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey.
Studies in the Novel, Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring 2012
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Modernity and Progress: Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Orwell
Ronald Berman.
University of Alabama Press, 2005
Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage
Jeffrey Meyers.
Routledge, 1997
Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as Public Writer
John Raeburn.
Indiana University Press, 1984
Cassandra's Daughters: The Women in Hemingway
Roger Whitlow.
Greenwood Press, 1984
"Hemingway's in Our Time: Cubism, Conservation, and the Suspension of Identification
Narbeshuber, Lisa.
The Hemingway Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Spring 2006
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Hemingway's In Our Time: Lyrical Dimensions
Wendolyn E. Tetlow.
Bucknell University Press, 1992
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator