Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (bĬsh), 1792–1822, English poet, b. Horsham, Sussex. He is ranked as one of the great English poets of the romantic period.

A Tempestuous Life

The son of a prosperous squire, he entered Oxford in 1810, where readings in philosophy led him toward a study of the empiricists and the modern skeptics, notably William Godwin. In 1811 he and his friend Thomas Jefferson Hogg published their pamphlet, The Necessity of Atheism, which resulted in their immediate expulsion from the university. The same year Shelley eloped with 16-year-old Harriet Westbrook, by whom he eventually had two children, Ianthe and Charles.

Supported reluctantly by their fathers, the young couple traveled through Great Britain. Shelley's life continued to be dominated by his desire for social and political reform, and he was constantly publishing pamphlets. His first important poem, Queen Mab, privately printed in 1813, set forth a radical system of curing social ills by advocating the destruction of various established institutions.

In 1814 Shelley left England for France with Mary Godwin, the daughter of William Godwin. During their first year together they were plagued by social ostracism and financial difficulties. However, in 1815 Shelley's grandfather died and left him an annual income. Laon and Cynthna appeared in 1817 but was withdrawn and reissued the following year as The Revolt of Islam; it is a long poem in Spenserian stanzas that tells of a revolution and illustrates the growth of the human mind aspiring toward perfection.

After Harriet Shelley's suicide in 1816, Shelley and Mary officially married. In 1817 Harriet's parents obtained a decree from the lord chancellor stating that Shelley was unfit to have custody of his children. The following year Shelley and Mary left England and settled in Italy. By this time their household consisted of their own three children and Mary's half-sister Claire Clairmont and her daughter Allegra (whose father was Lord Byron). On July 8, 1822, Shelley drowned while sailing in the Bay of Spezia, near Lerici.

Poetry

Shelley composed the great body of his poetry in Italy. The Cenci, a tragedy in verse exploring moral deformity, was published in 1819, followed by his masterpiece, Prometheus Unbound (1820). In this lyrical drama Shelley poured forth all his passions and beliefs, which were modeled after the ideas of Plato. Epipsychidion (1821) is a poem addressed to Emilia Viviani, a young woman whom Shelley met in Pisa and with whom he developed a brief but close friendship.

His great elegy, Adonais (1821), written in memory of Keats, asserts the immortality of beauty. Hellas (1822), a lyrical drama, was inspired by the Greek struggle for independence. His other poems include Alastor (1816) and the shorter poems "Ode to the West Wind," "To a Skylark," "Ozymandias," "The Indian Serenade," and "When the Lamp Is Shattered."

Assessment

Most of Shelley's poetry reveals his philosophy, a combination of belief in the power of human love and reason, and faith in the perfectibility and ultimate progress of humanity. His verse is at once deeply political, sensuous, and passionate, and his lyric poems are superb in their beauty, grandeur, and mastery of language. Although Matthew Arnold labeled him an "ineffectual angel," later critics have taken Shelley seriously, recognizing his wit, his gifts as a satirist, and his influence as a social and political thinker.

Bibliography

See his complete poetical works, ed. by N. Rogers (2 vol., 1972–74); letters, ed. by F. L. Jones (2 vol., 1964); biographies by E. C. Blunden (rev. ed. 1965), J. O. Fuller (1969), N. I. White (2 vol., 1940; repr. 1972), and R. Holmes (1974, new ed. 2003); studies by N. Rogers (2d ed. 1967), H. Bloom (2d ed. 1969), E. R. Wasserman (1971), K. N. Cameron (1974), C. Tomalin (1980), D. King-Hele (1981), S. M. Sperry (1988), and I. Gilmour (2003); K. N. Cameron and D. H. Reiman, ed., Shelley and His Circle (8 vol., 1961–85); A. Wroe, Being Shelley (2007).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Shelley
Stephen Spender.
Longmans, Green, 1952
Shelley: The Man and the Poet
Desmond King-Hele.
Thomas Yoseloff, 1960
Percy Bysshe Shelley: The Critical Heritage
James E. Barcus.
Routledge, 1995
Shelley and His Readers: Beyond Paranoid Politics
Kim Wheatley.
University of Missouri Press, 1999
Flight of the Skylark: The Development of Shelley's Reputation
Sylva Norman.
University of Oklahoma Press, 1954
In Defence of Shelley & Other Essays
Sir Herbert Edward Read.
William Heinemann Ltd, 1936
Shelley and the Chaos of History: A New Politics of Poetry
Hugh Roberts.
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997
Shelley at Work: A Critical Inquiry
Neville Rogers.
Clarendon Press, 1956
Shelley's Prose: Or, the Trumpet of a Prophecy
David Lee Clark; Percy Bysshe Shelley.
University of New Mexico Press, 1966
Shelley's Later Poetry: A Study of His Prophetic Imagination
Milton Wilson.
Columbia University Press, 1959
Shelley's Adonais: A Critical Edition
Anthony D. Knerr; Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Columbia University Press, 1984
Byron, Shelley, and Their Pisan Circle
C. L. Cline.
Harvard University Press, 1952
The Shelley-Byron Conversation
William D. Brewer.
University Press of Florida, 1994
The Godwins and the Shelleys: The Biography of a Family
William St Clair.
W. W. Norton, 1989
The Making of the Shelley Myth: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism of Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1822-1860
Karsten Klejs Engelberg.
Mansell Publishing, 1988
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