Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling, 1865–1936, English author, b. Bombay (now Mumbai), India. Educated in England, Kipling returned to India in 1882 and worked as an editor on a Lahore paper. His early poems were collected in Departmental Ditties (1886), Barrack-Room Ballads (1892), and other volumes. His first short stories of Anglo-Indian life appeared in Plain Tales from the Hills (1888) and Soldiers Three (1888). In 1889 he returned to London, where his novel The Light That Failed (1890) appeared. Kipling's masterful stories and poems interpreted India in all its heat, strife, and ennui. His romantic imperialism and his characterization of the true Englishman as brave, conscientious, and self-reliant did much to enhance his popularity. These views are reflected in such well-known poems as "The White Man's Burden," "Loot," "Mandalay," "Gunga Din," and Recessional (1897).

In London in 1892, he married Caroline Balestier, an American, and lived in Vermont for four years. There he wrote children's stories, The Jungle Book (1894) and Second Jungle Book (1895), Kim (1901), Just So Stories (1902), and Captains Courageous (1897). Returning to England in 1900, he lived in Sussex, the setting of Puck of Pook's Hill (1906). Other works include Stalky and Co. (1899) and his famous poem "If" (1910). England's first Nobel Prize winner in literature (1907), he is buried in Westminster Abbey.

See his Something of Myself (1937); biographies by J. I. M. Stewart (1966), J. Harrison (1982), H. Ricketts (2000), and D. Gilmour (2002); studies by J. M. S. Tompkins (2d ed. 1965), V. A. Shashane (1973), R. F. Moss (1982), P. Mallett, ed. (1989), and W. B. Dillingham (2008).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Rudyard Kipling: Activist and Artist
Vasant A. Shahane.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1973
The Jungle Books
Rudyard Kipling; W. W. Robson.
Oxford University Press, 1992
FREE! Kim
Rudyard Kipling.
Doubleday, Page, 1918
FREE! Captains Courageous
Rudyard Kipling.
Grosset & Dunlap, 1897
Adolescence, Imperialism, and Identity in Kim and Pegasus in Flight
Didicher, Nicole E.
Mosaic (Winnipeg), Vol. 34, No. 2, June 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique
Benita Parry.
Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "The Content and Discontents of Kipling's Imperialism"
Outsiders and Insiders: Perspectives of Third World Culture in British and Post-Colonial Fiction
Michael Harris.
Peter Lang, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. I "The Example of India: Rudyard Kipling and Salman Rushdie"
Gender, Race, and the Writing of Empire: Public Discourse and the Boer War
Paula M. Krebs.
Cambridge University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Imperial Imaginary - The Press, Empire, and the Literary Figure"
Dreams of Adventure, Deeds of Empire
Martin Green.
Basic Books, 1979
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IX "Kipling"
Victorian Fantasy
Stephen Prickett.
Baylor University Press, 2005
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Worlds within Worlds: Kipling and Nesbit"
Empire's Children: Empire and Imperialism in Classic British Children's Books
M. Daphne Kutzer.
Garland, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Kipling's Rules of the Game"
High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture, 1889-1939
Maria DiBattista; Lucy McDiarmid.
Oxford University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: "Kipling in the History of Forms" begins on p. 148
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