Andre Gide

Gide, André

André Gide (äNdrā´ zhēd), 1869–1951, French writer. He established a reputation as an unconventional novelist with The Immoralist (1902, tr. 1930), a partly autobiographical work in which he portrays a young man contravening ordinary moral standards in his search for self-fulfillment. In this and other major novels, including Strait Is the Gate (1909, tr. 1924), Lafcadio's Adventures (1914, tr. 1927), and The Counterfeiters (1926, tr. 1927), Gide shows individuals seeking out their own natures, which may be at conflict with prevailing ethical concepts. Raised as a Protestant, Gide became a leader of French liberal thought and was one of the founders (1909) of the influential Nouvelle Revue française. He was controversial for his frank defense of homosexuality and for his espousal of Communism and his subsequent disavowal of it after a visit to the Soviet Union. His voluminous writings, which include plays, stories, and essays, show great diversity of subjects and literary techniques. His use of myth to embody his thought is evident in such early satirical tales as Prometheus Misbound (1899, tr. 1933). His Travels in the Congo (1927, tr. 1929) and Retour du Tchad (1928) helped bring about reform of French colonial policy in Africa. In 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

See his autobiography, If It Die (tr. 1935, repr. 1957), and his journals (1889–1949), tr. and ed. by J. O'Brien (4 vol., 1947–51); studies by J. O'Brien (1953), J. Hytier (tr., 1967), V. Rossi (1967), G. D. Painter (rev. ed. 1968), A. J. Guérard (2d ed. 1969), and K. Mann (1978).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Pretexts Reflections on Literature and Morality
Andre Gide; Justin O'Brien.
Meridan Books, 1959
Corydon
André Gide.
Farrar Straus, 1950
Two Legends: Oedipus and Theseus
Andre Gide; John Russell.
Vintage Books, 1950
Marshlands and Prometheus Misbound: Two Satires
Gide Andre; George D. Painter.
New Directions, 1953
Gide's Bent: Sexuality, Politics, Writing
Michael Lucey.
Oxford University Press, 1995
Andre Gide: Pederasty and Pedagogy
Naomi Segal.
Clarendon Press, 1998
The Art of French Fiction: Prevost, Stendahl, Zola, Maupassant, Gide, Mauriac, Proust
Martin Turnell.
New Directions, 1959
The Image in the Modern French Novel: Gide, Alain-Fournier, Proust, Camus
Stephen Ullmann.
University Press, 1960
The Correspondence, 1899-1926, between Paul Claudel and Andre Gide
Robert Mallet; John Russell; Paul Claudel.
Pantheon, 1952
Elysian Encounter: Diderot and Gide
G. Norman Laidlaw.
Syracuse University Press, 1963
Rhetoric: Readings in French Literature
Michael Hawcroft.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Rhetoric and Sexual Revelation: Gide's Si Le Grain Ne Meurt" begins on p. 234
A Guide to Contemporary French Literature: From Valery to Sartre
Wallace Fowlie.
Meridian Books, 1957
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Two "Gide: The Sensual Quest"
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