Honore de Balzac

Balzac, Honoré de

Honoré de Balzac (băl´zăk, bôl–, Fr. ōnôrā´ də bälzäk´), 1799–1850, French novelist, b. Tours. Balzac ranks among the great masters of the novel. Of a bourgeois family, he himself later added the "de" to his name. Neglected in childhood, he was sent to a grammar school at Tours and later to a boarding school at Vendôme, where he was a dull student but a voracious reader. In 1816 he began studying law at the Sorbonne, but after receiving his license in 1819 he decided to abandon law for literature. Half starving in a Paris garret, Balzac began writing sensational novels to order, publishing them under a pseudonym. Throughout his life he worked with feverish activity, sleeping a few hours in the evening and writing from midnight until noon or afternoon of the next day. He was ridden with debts, which were increased rather than relieved by his business ventures. Balzac's first success, Les Chouans (1829, first published as Le Dernier Chouan), was followed by La Peau de chagrin (1831). In the next 20 years he produced the vast collection of novels and short stories called "La Comédie humaine." This, his greatest work, is a reproduction of the French society of his time, picturing in precise detail more than 2,000 characters from every class and every profession. The chief novels in "La Comédie humaine" are Louis Lambert (1832), Eugénie Grandet (1833), La Recherche de l'absolu (1834), Le Père Goriot (1835), Les Illusions perdues (1837), César Birotteau (1837), La Cousine Bette (1847), and Le Cousin Pons (1847). Outweighing Balzac's faults—his lack of literary style, his moralizing, his tendency toward melodrama—are his originality, his great powers of observation, and his vivid imagination. His short stories include some of the best in the language, but his attempts at drama failed. Though an unattractive, awkward man, Balzac formed several famous liaisons. Only a few months before his death he married the Polish Countess Evelina Hanska, with whom he had conducted a romantic correspondence for 18 years.

See The Human Comedy (with introductions by G. Saintsbury, 40 vol., 1895–98); Balzac's Letters to His Family, 1809–1850 (ed. by W. S. Hastings, 1934); biographies by H. J. Hunt (1957, repr. 1969), A. Maurois (1966, repr. 1983), and G. Robb (1994); studies by C. Prendergast (1979) and R. Butler (1983); bibliography and index comp. by W. H. Royce (1929, repr. 1969).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Balzac and the Human Comedy
Philippe Bertault; Richard Monges.
New York University Press, 1963
Balzac: A Life
Graham Robb.
Norton, 1994
FREE! Louis Lambert
Honoré de Balzac; Katharine Prescott Wormeley.
Roberts Brothers, 1896
Eugénie Grandet
Honoré de Balzac; Sylvia Raphael.
Oxford University Press, 1990
Pere Goriot
Honoré de Balzac; A. J. Krailsheimer.
Oxford University Press, 1991
FREE! Lost Illusions
Katharine Prescott Wormeley; Honoré de Balzac.
Roberts Brothers, 1896
Cousin Bette
Honoré de Balzac; Sylvia Raphael.
Oxford University Press, 1992
FREE! Le Cousin Pons
Katharine Prescott Wormeley; Honoré de Balzac.
Roberts Brothers, 1896
The Golden Scapegoat: Portrait of the Jew in the Novels of Balzac
Frances Schlamowitz Grodzinsky.
Whitston, 1989
The Unheroic Hero in the Novels of Stendhal, Balzac, and Flaubert
Raymond Giraud.
Rutgers University Press, 1957
The Novel in France: Mme de la Fayette, Laclos, Constant, Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, Proust
Martin Turnell.
New Directions, 1951
FREE! Overtones, a Book of Temperaments: Richard Strauss, Parsifal, Verdi, Balzac, Flaubert, Nietzsche, and Turgenieff
James Huneker.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904
Circumstances: Chance in the Literary Text
David F. Bell.
University of Nebraska Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Demon, the Police, and Cacophony in Balzac" and Chap. 4 "Balzac's Gamblers"
Fiction Rivals Science: The French Novel from Balzac to Proust
Allen Thiher.
University of Missouri Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Two "Balzac and the Unity of Knowledge"
The Naturalist in Balzac: The Relative Influence of Cuvier and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.(Honore De Balzac)(Critical Essay)
Somerset, Richard.
French Forum, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter 2002
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