Paul Valery

Valéry, Paul

Paul Valéry (pōl välārē´), 1871–1945, French poet and critic. A follower of the symbolists, Valéry was one of the greatest French poets of the 20th cent. He was encouraged by Pierry Loüys and by Mallarmé to publish a few poems in several small reviews, but he soon turned from poetry to prose with La Soirée avec M. Teste (1896; tr. An Evening with Mr. Teste, 1925). In 1912, Gide and other admirers urged him to publish a collection of his early poems. A brief valedictory to poetry, which he had planned to add to the collection, grew into his masterpiece, La Jeune Parque (1917). It is a long and somewhat obscure poem, which, together with Le Cimetière marin (1920; tr. The Graveyard by the Sea, 1932), offers the best example of Valéry's poetics. In 1920 appeared Odes and Album de vers anciens, followed in 1922 by Charmes. His prose works include five collections of essays, all called Variété (1924–44; partial tr. Variety, 1927, 1938), and four dialogues on subjects ranging from the arts to mathematics and the sciences. He succeeded Anatole France in the French Academy in 1925. Between the world wars Valéry was a member of the Committee of Letters and Arts of the League of Nations, serving as its president in the 1930s. Valéry held the chair of poetry at the Collège de France. A recipient of many honors, he was accorded a state funeral at his death. Publication (in English) of a projected 15-volume edition of The Collected Works of Paul Valéry, edited by Jackson Mathews, was begun in 1956.

See studies by H. A. Grubbs (1968), W. N. Ince (2d ed. 1970), and C. M. Crow (1972); bibliography by A. J. Arnold (1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Paul Valery and the Civilized Mind
Norman Suckling.
Oxford University Press, 1954
Four Critics: Croce, Valery, Lukacs, and Ingarden
RenÉ Wellek.
University of Washington Press, 1981
A Guide to Contemporary French Literature: From Valery to Sartre
Wallace Fowlie.
Meridian Books, 1957
Librarian’s tip: Chap. One "Valery: The Intellectual Quest"
Literary Polemics: Bataille, Sartre, Valéry, Breton
Suzanne Guerlac.
Stanford University Press, 1997
From Theory to Practice: A Musical Reading of Valery's "Profusion Du Soir"
Goldfarb, Lisa.
The Romanic Review, Vol. 91, No. 4, November 2000
Dancing under Their Own Gaze: Mallarme, Jarry and Valery
Fell, Jill.
Journal of European Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, June 1999
A Reader's Guide to Fifty Modern European Poets
John Pilling.
Heinemann, 1982
Librarian’s tip: "Paul Valery (1871-1945)" begins on p. 80
The Heritage of Symbolism
C. M. Bowra.
MacMillan, 1943
Librarian’s tip: Chap. II "Paul Valery 1871-"
Baudelaire and the Aesthetics of Bad Faith
Susan Blood.
Stanford University, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. One "The Two Baudelaires: Valery's Canonization of 'Les Fleurs du Mal'"
The Celestial Twins: Poetry and Music through the Ages
H. T. Kirby-Smith.
University of Massachusetts Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Paul Valery begins on p. 274
Puzzles and Epiphanies: Essays and Reviews, 1958-1961
Frank Kermode.
Chilmark Press, 1962
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Paul Valery begins on p. 50
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