Igor Stravinsky

Stravinsky, Igor Fedorovich

Igor Fedorovich Stravinsky (ē´gər fyô´dərô´vyĬch strəvĬn´skē), 1882–1971, Russian-American composer. Considered by many the greatest and most versatile composer of the 20th cent., Stravinsky helped to revolutionize modern music.

Stravinsky's father, an actor and singer in St. Petersburg, had him educated for the law. Music was only an avocation for Stravinsky until his meeting in 1902 with Rimsky-Korsakov, with whom he studied formally from 1907 to 1908. Stravinsky's First Symphony in E Flat Major (1907) is pervaded by the influence of Rimsky-Korsakov's nationalistic style. The work of Stravinsky interested the ballet impressario Sergei Diaghilev, and Stravinsky's first strikingly original compositions—L'Oiseau de Feu (The Firebird, 1910) and Petrouchka (1911)—were written for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in Paris.

In the ballet Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring, 1913) he departed radically from musical tradition by using irregular, primitive rhythms and harsh dissonances. The audience at the premiere of the ballet reacted with riotous disfavor. However, in the following year the work was performed by a symphony orchestra, and ever since it has been recognized as a landmark and masterpiece of modern music.

At the beginning of World War I, Stravinsky moved to Switzerland, where he composed several works based on Russian themes, including the ballet Les Noces (The Wedding, 1923). Influenced by 18th-century music, he embarked on an austere, neoclassical style in such works as the poetic dance-drama Histoire du Soldat (The Soldier's Tale, 1918), the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927; text by Jean Cocteau after Sophocles), and the choral composition Symphonie de psaumes (Symphony of Psalms, 1930).

In the 1930s, Stravinsky toured throughout Europe and the United States as a pianist and conductor of his own works. He became a French citizen in 1934, but five years later he moved to the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1945. Compositions of the 1940s include such diverse works as the Ebony Concerto (1946) for clarinet and swing band; the Third Symphony (1946) in three movements; the ballet Orpheus (1948); and a mass (1948) for voices and double wind quintet.

After composing the opera The Rake's Progress (1951; inspired by Hogarth's engravings, with libretto by W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman), Stravinsky turned to experiments with serial techniques (see serial music). In Cantata (1952) the new technique was evident, and in the chamber piece Septet (1953) he made the full transition to serialism. He continued to compose in this exacting style in the abstract ballet Agon (1957) and in Threni (1958), a work for voices and orchestra. His creative originality was undiminished in his late works, which display remarkable freshness, meticulous craftsmanship, and an experimental quality.

Stravinsky's influence on 20th-century music is immeasurable. He revitalized the rhythms of European music and achieved entirely new sonorities and blends of orchestral colors. A series of lectures he delivered at Harvard were published as Poétique musicale (1942, tr. Poetics of Music, 1948).

Bibliography

See his autobiography Chronicles of My Life (1935, tr. 1936); his Memories and Commentaries (1960), Expositions and Developments (1962), and Dialogues and a Diary (1963), all three written with R. Craft. See also biographies by R. Siohan (1959, tr. 1966), A. Dobrin (1970), P. Horgan (1972), R. Craft (1972), L. Libman (1972), and S. Walsh (2 vol., 1999–2006); studies by J. Pasler (1986), P. van den Toorn (1987), S. Walsh (1988), and C. M. Joseph (2001 and 2002).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Stravinsky: An Autobiography
Igor Stravinsky.
Simon & Schuster, 1936
The Cambridge Companion to Stravinsky
Jonathan Cross.
Cambridge University Press, 2003
Igor Stravinsky: The Man and His Music
Alexandre Tansman; Therese Bleefield; Charles Bleefield.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1949
Igor Stravinsky
Edwin Corle.
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1949
Conversations with Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky; Robert Craft.
Doubleday, 1959
Stravinsky: Classic Humanist
Heinrich Strobel; Hans Rosenwald.
Merlin Press, 1955
Stravinsky Retrospectives
Ethan Haimo; Paul Johnson.
University of Nebraska Press, 1987
Building Blocks: Repetition and Continuity in the Music of Stravinsky
Gretchen G. Horlacher.
Oxford University Press, 2011
Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook
Larry Sitsky.
Greenwood Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)" begins on p. 500
European Music in the Twentieth Century
Howard Hartog.
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957
Librarian’s tip: "Stravinksy" begins on p. 40
Musical Trends in the 20th Century
Norman Demuth.
Rockliff Publishing, 1975
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Twenty-Four "Igor Stravinsky"
Modern Music: Composers and Music of Our Time
Max Graf; Beatrice R. Maier.
Philosophical Library, 1946
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "The Faces of Stravinsky"
Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons
Igor Stravinsky; Arthur Knodel; Ingolf Dahl.
Vintage Books, 1947
Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi
Howard Gardner.
BasicBooks, 1993
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