Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) is a quarterly professional journal published and owned by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (AAHPERD). Its editorial headquarters is in Reston, Va. This journal has been published since 1930. Offering the latest research in the art and science of human movement studies, RQES features articles and research notes encompassing such topic areas as biomechanics, epidemiology, motor behavior, measurement and evaluation, physiology, pedagogy, psychology and history/philosophy/sociocultural foundations. This journal is a go-to source for researchers and university students preparing for careers in exercise and sport science. Its region is the U.S. The journal publishes over 50 papers per year in four issues (March, June, September and December), an annual index (in the December issue) and an annual supplement, containing approximately 250 abstracts of presentations from the Research Consortium Conference of the AAHPERD National Convention and Exposition. In March 2005, RQES featured an article titled "Listening to the Voices: The Experiences of African American Female Student Athletes." Using data collected at a large Midwestern University, the study looked at the sport participation patterns of 12 African American female collegiate student athletes. In December 2006, RQES researched active and passive commuting to school to assess the effects walking farther to school had on primary school age kids. In June 2009, the journal included an article that explored whether adults involved in resistance training programs experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth. Linda Topper is the Managing Editor and Publisher and Mark G. Fischman is Editor-in-Chief.

Articles from Vol. 74, No. 1, March

2–E E–ST–W
2000 Summer Olympics: Analysis of Gender and Media. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
Mass media often reflects and perpetuates a hegemonic view of society (Herman & Chomsky, 1988) resulting in the marginalization of particular groups, such as women. Daddario (1998) has suggested that the perception of so-called "natural" sex differences...
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2003 Research Consortium Graduate Student Award Winner: Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Adults with Physical Disabilities
The benefits of physical activity and/or exercise for individuals with disabilities have been reported by an abundance of studies and governmental agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999; Guthrie, 1999). Some of the benefits include...
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A Case Study Analysis of the Brand Equity Conceptual Model in Intercollegiate Athletics. (Sport Management/Administration)
Aaker (1991) defined brand equity as the set of assets of awareness, positive associations, and loyalty that are linked to the brand and can add (or subtract) from the value of the product to the customer. The brand equity equation mirrors the circular...
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Accumulating 10,000 Steps: Does This Target Meet the Current Physical Activity Guidelines? (Measurement)
The purpose of this study was to detennine whether taking 10,000 steps in a day is equivalent to meeting the current physical activity guidelines of accumulating 30 mm of moderate physical activity (MPA). Fifty-nine women between the ages of 20 and...
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A Children's Version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. (Measurement)
In order to assess the perceived anxiety children experience relative to how others view their physiques, Hart, Leary and Rejeski's (1989) Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) was adapted to aversion for children ages 8--14-years-old (i.e., later elementary...
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A Comparison of Body Composition of Junior High School Girls in Physical Education Using Skinfolds and Bioimpedance Techniques. (Measurement)
The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend the research previously conducted by Ballinger and Malone (2001) on the use of the Tanita Bioimpedance Scale in Physical Education classes, as an alternative to the two-site FITNESSGRAM skinfold...
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A Comparison of Four Measures of Body Composition of University Students. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
The purpose of this study was to compare four methods of body composition measurements. All participants were volunteers at a university health fair, 20 men and 36 women. The four methods used in the study were: (a) step on scale and fat analyzer (TBF...
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American, Swedish, and Australian Children's Activity and BMI Levels. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
Understanding activity levels and body composition of children and their relationship to a healthy lifestyle is a growing area of research. There is much concern for the rate of increases seen in overweight and obese children around the world. The...
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Analyzing Qualitative Data of Award Winning High School Football Coaches. (Psychology)
The field of exercise and sport science generally attempts to investigate and understand the world through positivistic philosophy and methodology. In recent years, however, more investigators have begun to use qualitative methods to answer critical...
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Analyzing Tactical Skills Via Verbal Reports. (Peer-Reviewed Symposia)
Verbal report data during task performance provide information concerning an individual's activation of critical input and concepts from long-term memory that form an initial representation of the problem (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). This initial...
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An Analysis of the Relationships between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Fitness/health-Related Variables for First- through Fifth-Grade Students. (Pedagogy)
The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 2001 stated that children aged six through 17 should participate in 60 mm of daily physical activity or take 11,000 steps a day, a minimum of 5 days a week to receive health benefits. This study...
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An Analysis of the Relationships between Selected Teacher Behaviors and Affective Outcomes of Students in Middle School Physical Education. (Pedagogy)
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between selected teacher behaviors and interactions provided to girls and boys in middle school physical education classes and the students' affective outcomes. A second purpose was...
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An Application of an Ecological Model to Understanding Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors among College Students. (Health)
Physical activity and healthy dietary behaviors are critical in the reduction of risk of chronic disease. Despite knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and nutrition, behaviors have not reflected current understanding. Developing healthy...
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An Assessment of Statistical Data Analysis Techniques Employed in the Journal of Sport Management: 1987-2002. (Sport Management/Administration)
The purpose of this investigation was to examine statistical data analysis techniques utilized in the Journal of Sport Management (JSM).JSM was selected because it is the official research publication of the North American Society for Sport Management...
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An Empirical Investigation of the Satisfaction, Commitment, and Performance of NCAA Division III Coaches. (Sport Management/Administration)
As nonprofit organizations become increasingly accountable for their performance, more impetus is placed on measuring both individual and organizational effectiveness. Effectiveness frameworks such as stakeholder and multiple constituency theories...
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An Examination of End-of-Life Decisions among Older Adults in the Greater New Orleans Area. (Health)
As the elderly population continues to grow, this group will utilize a larger percentage of medical care than ever before. Accordingly, communication between health care providers and health care receivers needs to improve regarding end-of life decisions....
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An Examination of International Sport Management Research: Content Analysis of NASSM, EASM, and SMAANZ Conference Presentations 2000-2002. (Sport Management/Administration)
Sport continues to enjoy growing international interest as evidenced through increased attendance and media coverage during international competitions. It is likely this trend will continue, fueling the global growth of sport management programs to...
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An Examination of Online Relationship Building of Professional Sport Leagues through Their Websites. (Sport Management/Administration)
Although the relationships with sports fans is one of the most important distinctions between professional sports and other businesses, the concept of relationship building has not heavily emphasized in the sport industry. Bovinet (1999) indicated...
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An Examination of the Contributions of Practice, Demonstration and Cuing, and Direct Instruction to Skill Learning. (Pedagogy)
Principles gleaned from classroom process-product research, like academic learning time, have been applied to teaching physical education. Research has indicated subject matter taught by providing clear demonstration and cues and progressive practice...
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An Examination of the Organizational Culture of a Basic Undergraduate Physical Activities Program. (Pedagogy)
Basic undergraduate physical activity programs (BUPAPs) play a vital role in providing undergraduates an opportunity to develop sport related skills and healthy lifestyle habits. However, the instructional ability of the graduate teaching assistants...
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An Examination of the Perceptions of the General Public regarding the Certification of Coaches. (Pedagogy)
This study examines the perceptions of the general public regarding coaching certification and related qualifications. The expansion of sport programs at all levels has prompted the growth and availability of coaching opportunities. Career opportunities...
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An Experimental Determination of the Best Missing-Value Recovery Method in Assessing Physical Activity Using Pedometers. (Measurement)
Tracking the number of steps a person walked using pedometers has become one of the most commonly used practical measures in assessing physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine empirically the most effective method to recover the...
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An Innovated Short Version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS-SV). (Psychology)
The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was first published in 1971 and was originally designed for measuring "current" mood states in people undergoing counseling or psychotherapy. Later, it has be en widely used to assess distinct mood states in both medical...
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An Investigation of the Relationships between Environmental Factors and Physical Activity among Taiwanese High School Students. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
Physical inactivity among youth and adolescent populations is a prevailing problem in Taiwan. Seventy-one percent of 4,000 Taiwanese elementary students surveyed spend their daily leisure time watching television and 15% report spending their time...
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Assessment of College Students' Behavioral Status Related to Tattooing. (Health)
Although exposure to blood-borne pathogens and potential allergic reaction to pigments are well documented health risks related to tattooing, the number of Americans choosing to engage in this health risk behavior is increasing. Estimates indicate...
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Assessment of Content Using Rubrics. (Pedagogy)
A common characteristic of a standards-based curriculum is the presence of performance-based tasks designed to assess students' knowledge of skills and performance. Much of the subjectivity inherent in such assignments can be minimized by creating...
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Assessment of Sport Teachers Attitudes and Opinions toward Adapted Physical Education. (Special Populations)
Since 1993, the Ministry of Education and Science of Latvia has developed several documents and policies to improve the education for children with disabilities. Data indicate approximately 3000 children with various special needs enrolled in regular...
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A Survey of Urban Teachers' Assessment Practice. (Measurement)
The purpose of this study was to examine assessment practices of urban physical education teachers related to health-related physical fitness. Elementary (n = 70) and secondary (n = 68) physical education teachers in a large urban school system responded...
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Attitudes toward Sexist/nonsexist Language: A Comparison of Students in Sport-Related Majors with Students in Other Majors. (Sport Management/Administration)
Scholars recognize that sexist language has deleterious effects on the sport environment (Blinde, Greendorfer, & Shanker, 1991; Duncan & Hasbrook, 1988; Eitzen & Zinn, 1989, 1993; Hutchinson, 1995; Messner, Duncan, &Jensen, 1993). While...
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Automated External Defibrillator Use and Factors Related to Nonuse in High School Athletic Departments. (Health)
In the United States, sudden cardiac arrest strikes nearly 1,000 people each day, and only 5% survive. However, the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) could potentially prevent 100,000 deaths per year. The potential for cardiac arrest...
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A Work-Based Walking Program. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
Findings in the scientific literature consistently show that many Americans do not exercise at rates sufficient to produce health benefits. It has also been repeatedly demonstrated that the most prevalent and palatable mode of physical activity (PA)...
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Biomechanical Consequences of Impairment: A Taxonomically Valid Basis for Classification in a Unified Disability Athletics System. (Biomechanics)
Developing a unified classification system to rep lace four of the systems currently used in disability athletics (i.e., track and field) has been widely advocated. The diverse impairments to be included in a unified system require several assessment...
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Blood Lipid Response to Training in Functionally Limited Elders. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
There is a dearth of information available examining the effects of exercise training on lipoprotein levels for elderly populations. In younger populations, exercise training has been reported to both improve the lipoprotein profile and result in no...
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Body Composition and Aerobic Fitness Profile of Collegiate Cheerleaders. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
There are over 1/4 million cheerleaders on high school and collegiate squads in the United States. Cheerleaders strive to maintain strictly regulated levels of body fatness and have a high degree of aerobic fitness. Even with these requirements, cheerleaders...
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Building a Body of Knowledge in Sport Science: A Return to Platt and Kuhn. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
New knowledge is continually being developed in the exercise, sport, and movement sciences. Yet, these scientific endeavors may not be as efficient or productive as possible. Revisiting the writings of philosophers of science, such as John Platt (1964)...
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"Can You Hear Me Now?" Expert Teachers' Use of Humor to Enhance Student Learning. (Pedagogy)
Teaching expertise is characterized by effective strategies that engage students, convey content meaningfully, and evaluate student learning. One method that appears particularly effective when engaging students is the use of humor. Humor is a distinctly...
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Cardiovascular and Perceptual Responses to Graded Exercise in Persons with Developmental Disabilities with and without Verbal Encouragement. (Special Populations)
Individuals with developmental disability have historically demonstrated lower levels of physical fitness than their nondisabled counterparts. In addition, adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome generally display lower levels of fitness than...
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Causal Attributions in Physical Fitness Testing. (Psychology)
When the outcome of a physical test has serious consequences, do participants attribute their success or failure to external factors such as luck and poor testing conditions or internal factors like ability and effort? Roberts and Pascuzzi's 1979 model...
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Challenges in Setting Performance Standards in Physical Education for Students with Disabilities. (Peer-Reviewed Symposia)
The inclusion of students with disabilities has become a global trend and a hot discussion topic in education including physical education over the past 30 years. More recently, the Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments of 1997 added a requirement...
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Changes in Physical Activity after Using a Pedometer. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a pedometer to increase physical activity in women ages 35-65 years of age that were not already enrolled in a formal exercise program. Fourteen women were recruited to participate in the 6-week...
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Children's Motivation in an Elementary Physical Education Running Program. (Pedagogy)
The knowledge that regular running provides many positive benefits has prompted many schools to establish running programs; however, little is known about children's motivation in such running programs. This study examined children's motivations in...
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Children's Motivation in a Year-Long Elementary Physical Education Running Program. (Pedagogy)
What are the factors that motivate children to do well in physical education running programs? Do boys and girls differ in motivation and performance in those running programs? Understanding such issues may help physical education teachers design better...
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Children's Motivation in Elementary Physical Education: An Expectancy-Value Model of Achievement Choice. (Pedagogy)
This study examined children's motivation in elementary physical education within an expectancy-value model developed by Eccles and her colleagues. Four hundred fourteen students in second and fourth grades completed questionnaires assessing their...
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Chronic Flexibility Gains: Effect of Isometric Contraction Duration during Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Techniques. (Physiology)
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two isometric contraction durations during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on gains inflexion at the hip. Forty-three women (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 1.3) were assigned to one of...
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Coaching: A Significant Career Step for Women Entering the Professoriate. (Pedagogy)
This paper details coaching experiences of women sport pedagogy academics. While numerous studies of coach socialization exist (e.g., Segrave, 1981; Chu, 1983; Sage, 1989, 1995),few have included women at all and none have addressed the experiences...
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Coaching Athletes with a Disability: Case Studies into Coaches' Efficacy Beliefs and Expectations. (Special Populations)
A belief in your own ability to coach and a belief in your athletes' ability to perform are influential factors in coaching effectiveness (Feltz, Chase, Moritz, & Sullivan, 1999). This study addressed these issues relative to coaches of wheelchair...
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Community Support for a Ban on Smoking in Public Buildings. (Health)
The purpose of the study was to identify support for a local ordinance, which would ban smoking in public buildings. Smoking is the most important lifestyle risk factor for heart disease and the leading cause of cancer death. Research findings clearly...
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Comparing the Relative Effects of Four Training Regimens on Strength Development. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
Reports regarding the effects of multiple versus single-set strength training regimens are numerous and the general consensus is that the two regimens produce similar gains in strength. This project explored the issue by manipulating the sequence of...
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Comparison of Popular Body Composition Assessments for Women. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
The purpose of this study was to compare the most commonly used methods for assessing body composition in women. Body composition measures were recorded for 20 women ages 18 to 64 years via calipers, hand-held bioelectrical impedance (BIA), standing...
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Comparison of the Modified Push-Up and the Full Body Push-Up for College-Age Women. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
With the recent emphasis on strength development in women for skeletal and postural health, many girls and women are using full body pushups (FBPU) to build upper body strength and endurance. Several test protocol used in physical education programs...
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Comparison of the Physical Fitness Levels of Mentally Retarded and Nondisabled Women. (Special Populations)
Mental Retardation (MR) may cause many cognitive and functional limitations in daily vital communication, physical and social skills. These multiple limitations have negative effects on muscular endurance, education, life expectancy and social skills...
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Comprehending Membership Incentives: Development of Instrument for Nonprofit Professional Associations of Collegiate Athletics. (Sport Management/Administration)
Research literature suggested that participative decisions of professionals in nonprofit associations could be affected by such motivational factors as rational choice, affective bonding, and normative conformity of individuals (Knoke, 1988). However,...
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Conceptualizing Skillfulness in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. (Pedagogy)
Inquiry into learning to teach physical education needs to be addressed within the institutional context of individual teacher education programs. Central to this notion of institutionalized contexts are the epistemological constructs of program participants...
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Conceptual Physical Education Courses in American Colleges and Universities: Their Potential to Impact Students' Physical Activity Behavior. (Pedagogy)
The prevalence of sedentary behavior and its accompanying health consequences is well documented: Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses, which combine activity experiences with a lecture component, also referred to as multidimentional courses,...
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Constraints on the Tactical Decision Making Process in Soccer
Skilled motor performance captures the attention of both spectators and researchers. One aspect of skilled motor performance in invasion games is that of tactical decision making. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore constraining influences on...
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Contributions of the Selected Fundamental Factors to Basketball Performance for Paralympic Wheelchair Basketball Players. (Biomechanics)
The movement dynamics and physical profile specifically related to handling a wheelchair, such as starting, sprinting, braking, turning and blocking are crucial to wheelchair basketball (WCB) performance. The movement dynamics and physical profile...
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Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Reported Activity Levels, Perceptions of Fitness, Self-Efficacy, and Fitness Scores in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
Physical activity levels, which have a direct relationship to fitness levels and future morbidity and mortality, have been shown to differ based on ethnicity. White children report higher levels of physical activity than their African American or Hispanic...
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Cross Validation of Field-Based Assessment of Body Composition for Individuals with Down Syndrome. (Special Populations)
The ability to accurately estimate body composition is important to practitioners. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Skinfold Measurements (SM), and Anthropometric Girth Measurements (AGM) are commonly used as field based assessments. These assessments...
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Culture of Overweight Children: Social Interaction and Physical Activity Patterns of Overweight Children. (Health)
The purpose of this multicase study was to provide insight into the social interaction and physical activity patterns of overweight and nonoverweight children. Qualitative research methods were utilized to determine the perspectives of four children...
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Curriculum Implementation through Developmental Collaboration. (Pedagogy)
Utilizing collaborative activities to improve the quality of physical education have been noted in professional journals and professional meetings. Yet, the term "collaboration" has been used loosely, with interpretations ranging from a "collaborative...
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Demographic Variables and Perception of Environment as Predictors of Physical Activity among Seniors. (Special Populations)
The potential for physical activity (PA) to prevent and treat chronic illnesses is well known. Because of increases in the numbers of elderly and because the elderly are the heaviest users of health care services, efforts to prevent and treat chronic...
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Determination of Optimal Muscular Power Development in Individuals over Age Fifty. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
The preservation of muscular power in older adults greatly decreases the risk of disability and enhances functional independence. Few studies have examined the impact that different training protocols have on muscular power in individuals over the...
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Developing and Field Testing Socially Critical Elementary Adventure Physical Education Curriculum. (Pedagogy)
This study was part of a larger project merging the need for more systematic and field tested adventure education curriculum with recent calls for incorporating social objectives into school physical education. Our purpose was to develop and field...
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Developing Interpersonal Skills in Preservice Teachers through a Community-Based Project. (Pedagogy)
As the demand for quality physical educators increases nationally there is a need to examine the effectiveness of the undergraduate experience for preservice teachers. Using the National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers (2002) as...
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Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Motor Time. (Motor Behavior)
Simple reaction time (RT) was divided into cognitive and motor time to more closely determine the developmental changes in cognitive processing time. In previous studies the assumption has been that motor time did not interact with age, thus RT represented...
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Developmental Competence in Badminton Game Play across Skill Levels. (Pedagogy)
Development of motor skills has always been an important objective in school physical education. Students cannot enjoy physical activity and sports until they can participate in the activity at a competent level. According to the National Standards...
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Development and Validation of the Physical Activity Determinants Scale (PADS) for Adolescents. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
Physical activity and fitness are important factors in the primary prevention of chronic disease in youth, yet physical activity levels actually diminish during adolescence. Furthermore, adolescence is an important period for learning health-related...
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Development of Adaptation to Changing Speed Requirements in Terms of Negative Muscular Work during Bicycling. (Motor Behavior)
During contact control tasks, the goal is to move an object that is in permanent contact with the limb. If muscular forces act in opposition to the desired movement direction, they counteract the movement and may be regarded as inefficient. Under certain...
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Development of Aerobic Fitness Goal-Setting Standards for Adults. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
Recent studies reveal many Americans are sedentary. Although the public is aware of the importance of exercise, few studies focus on the role or development of appropriate fitness goals for adults. Quite often, aerobic fitness goals are unrealistic...
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Development of the Physical Activity Class Satisfaction Questionnaire (PACSQ). (Psychology)
Satisfaction is seen as an important outcome of one's participation in physical activity classes. From a prime beneficiary perspective, students benefit the most from the class and, thus, their satisfaction is one measure of success. Additionally,...
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Dimensions of Market Demand Variables Associated with Professional Sport Game Consumption: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. (Measurement)
Market demand variables for professional sport games are core product features to satisfy the needs and expectations of sport consumers. Contemporary theories derived from empirical investigations indicate that market demand variables fall into three...
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Diversity, Recategorization, and Performance Appraisals. (Sport Management/Administration)
One pitfall of organizational diversity, especially in superior-subordinate dyads, is that rater-ratee dissimilarity is negatively associated with scores on performance appraisals. The rater-ratee dissimilarity can stem from demographics (e.g., race,...
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Divided Attention Costs for Speeded and Nonspeeded Secondary Tasks to near and Far Targets. (Motor Behavior)
Previously, Fischman, Kinley, and Lane (1999) found that reaction times (RTs) to a primary task were slowed when paired with a nonspeeded secondary task. This finding was not replicated in a subsequent experiment (Dornier & Reeve, 2001). One difference...
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Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns Effect Bone Mineral Density in Division I Intercollegiate Athletes: A Pilot Study. (Sports Medicine)
International orthopedic groups have declared 2000-20 10 the Bone and Joint Decade in the medical community. An area of bone health of particular relevance to athletics is the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. College athletes are at risk for significant...
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Effectiveness of Cholesterol Education for Older Adults in Congregate and Assisted Living Facilities. (Health)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion programming created specifically for older adults residing in congregate and assisted living facilities. Extending community health programming to this population is essential...
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Effectiveness of Interactive Computer Instruction in the Elementary Physical Education Classroom. (Pedagogy)
Students in elementary grades devote many hours to playing interactive computer games. If this enthusiasm for learning can be transferred to the elementary physical education classroom considerable learning and increased retention of knowledge may...
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Effect of an Alternative Physical Education Program on "At-Risk" High School Students with Respect to Achievement in and Perceptions of Physical Education. (Pedagogy)
This study, completed as a requirement in the Master of Science degree, was designed to examine the efficacy of an alternative physical education program on the perceptions of, and achievement for, "at-risk" students toward physical education before...
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Effect of Hellison's Social Development Model on Positive and Negative Sport Behavior of Youth Basketball Players. (Pedagogy)
The concept of teaching moral character through sport has recently received a resurgence of importance (Sage, 1998). This study attempted to reduce negative sport behavior and increase positive sport behavior during a season of youth basketball using...
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Effect of Manual Guidance on Acquiring a New Bimanual Coordination Pattern. (Research Note-Motor Control and Learning)
Key words: coordination task, motor learning, 90[degrees] relative phase, nonrisky situation Guidance is a procedure used to help learners experience a proprioceptive sensation arising from correct movements and preventing learners from being exposed...
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Effect of Rally Scoring on Coaching Strategies of Head Women Intercollegiate Volleyball Coaches in Division I and III. (Pedagogy)
In 2001 the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport NAGWS) mandated rally scoring for all Women's Intercollegiate Volleyball matches. Rally scoring was defined as "When a team falls to serve properly, return the ball, or commits any other...
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Effect of Specific and Specific + Variable Practice and Subjective Estimation on Movement Bias, Consistency, and Error-Detection Capabilities. (Motor Behavior)
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of supplementing specific practice with variable practice and subjective estimation on movement bias, consistency, and error-detection capabilities in a coincident anticipation task. Forty-eight...
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Effect of Specific and Variable Practice on Learning an Archery Target Shot. (Motor Behavior)
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of supplementing specific practice with variable practice in acquisition on retention and transfer of an archery target shot in a standard physical education instructional setting. Forty-six...
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Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Function: A Preliminary Quantitative Report. (Special Populations)
Considerable research has indicated that aging is typically associated with a decline in cardiovascular function. Because the declines in cardiovascular function are so prevalent, the topic of cardiovascular aging has created considerable interest...
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Effects of an Aquatic Exercise and Swimming Program on the Body Composition and under Working Capacity of Mentally Retarded Children. (Special Populations)
Although physiological adaptations to aerobic endurance training differ in many ways in terms of age, gender and genetic factors, aerobic endurance training may result in decreased body fat, increased respiratory capacity, maximal oxygen uptake and...
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Effects of a Pedometer-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and BMI. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
There has been an increased emphasis on the development of "lifestyle" interventions to increase physical activity. Such interventions have been shown to be as effective as structured exercise programs in increasing physical activity levels and in...
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Effects of a Physical Education Curriculum on Work Productivity and Fitness Parameters in High School Students with Mental Retardation. (Special Populations)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based physical education progressive resistance-training program on muscular strength, endurance, and work productivity of high school participants with mental retardation....
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Effects of Bee Pollen on Maximum Oxygen Consumption ([VO.Sub.2]max), Blood Parameters, and Recovery Time of Endurance Athletes. (Exercise Physiology and Fitness)
Many dietary ergogenic aids are being used by athletes to have optimal performance amongst them bee pollen research has showed that it had positive effects on body functions and certain illness when used as a nutritional supplement (Williams, 1995),...
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Effects of Constant Time Delay Method on Teaching Halliwick's Swimming Education Rotation Skills for Children with Autism. (Special Populations)
Autism is a developmental disability that affects children's verbal and nonverbal behaviors with a ritualistic and compulsive way and it is significant before age three (APA, 1994; Berkeley et. al., 2001; Loovis, 2000). Also it is stated that children...
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Effects of Diversified Dyads and Work Groups on Leader Member Exchanges and Career Outcomes. (Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity)
The fact that Black student-athletes are awarded more than half of all college basketball playing opportunities and scholarships at NCAA Division I schools suggests that intercollegiate sports may present part of American society free from racial discrimination....
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Effects of Gender and Verbal Cues on the Cognition and Performance of a Motor Task. (Pedagogy)
The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of verbal cues and the gender of a demonstrator would affect the cognition and performance of a novel motor task. Sixty male and 60 female college students with no prior juggling experience were...
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Effects of Participation in Arthritis Aquatics on Selected Physical and Mental Measures among Older Adults. (Special Populations)
The long-term benefits of physical activity and exercise have been shown to provide numerous health gains to older adults (Karani, McLaughlin, & Cassel, 2001). Remaining physically active can contribute to successful aging by maintaining function,...
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Effects of Performance Feedback on Thought Processes regarding Future Physical Activity. (Psychology)
Individuals' view of self, their self-schema, is a critical determinant of behavior (see Markus & Nurius, 1986). For example, individuals who value exercise and self-describe as exercisers (exercise schematics) exercise more frequently than those...
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Effects of Teaching Actions on Students' Use of Critical Thinking Skills. (Pedagogy)
This study aimed at investigating how the structure of tasks and instructional actions impact on students' use of critical thinking skills while learning creative dance. The participants in this study were an expert elementary physical education teacher...
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Effects of Wearing Heart Rate Monitors on Elementary Students' Activity Levels during a Team Handball Unit. (Pedagogy)
Measurement of children's physical activity in the past decade has moved out of the laboratory and into the field. One of the most common field measures used by teachers and researchers is the heart rate monitor. These devices allow students to receive...
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Elementary Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Instructional Alignment in Physical Education. (Pedagogy)
Instructional alignment is the extent to which stimulus conditions match among three instructional components: intended outcomes, instructional processes, and instructional assessment (Cohen, 1987). Instructional alignment has been examined to some...
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Elicitation Studies and the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Systematic Review of Exercise Beliefs. (Psychology)
Ajzen (1991; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) developed several guidelines for the theory of planned behavior (TPB), one of which was to conduct an elicitation study to determine a population's salient behavioral, normative, arid control beliefs. Once these...
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Evaluation of a Widely Disseminated Physical Education and Professional Development Program by Inservice Teachers. (Pedagogy)
Evaluating the dissemination of physical education (PE) programs can identify strengths and weaknesses in both programs and dissemination efforts. To date few studies of program dissemination have been reported. We assessed the dissemination of an...
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Examination of Physical Activity during a Physical Activity Intervention and Recess. (Pedagogy)
The abundant benefits of living a physically active life are well documented (Grundy et al., 1999; Westerterp, 1999; Epstein & Goldfield, 1999; Blair & Brodney, 1999; USPHS, 1996). Of particular interest is the relationship between physical...
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Examination of the Relationship among Affective Factors, Involvement, Learning Achievement in Physical Education. (Pedagogy)
National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 1995) has suggested that physical education should provide opportunities for enjoyment, fun and entertainment. Based on emotional interest theory (Harp & Mayer, 1997), it seems a reasonable assumption...
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Examination on the Reliability of a Racquetball Skills Test Battery Using Univariate and Multivariate Models. (Measurement)
The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance has consistently promoted the need for reliability and validity evidence of tests and test batteries. Wood and Safrit (1987) noted that estimates of battery reliability have...
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