Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) is a quarterly professional journal published and owned by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (AAHPERD). Its editorial headquarters is in Reston, Va. This journal has been published since 1930. Offering the latest research in the art and science of human movement studies, RQES features articles and research notes encompassing such topic areas as biomechanics, epidemiology, motor behavior, measurement and evaluation, physiology, pedagogy, psychology and history/philosophy/sociocultural foundations. This journal is a go-to source for researchers and university students preparing for careers in exercise and sport science. Its region is the U.S. The journal publishes over 50 papers per year in four issues (March, June, September and December), an annual index (in the December issue) and an annual supplement, containing approximately 250 abstracts of presentations from the Research Consortium Conference of the AAHPERD National Convention and Exposition. In March 2005, RQES featured an article titled "Listening to the Voices: The Experiences of African American Female Student Athletes." Using data collected at a large Midwestern University, the study looked at the sport participation patterns of 12 African American female collegiate student athletes. In December 2006, RQES researched active and passive commuting to school to assess the effects walking farther to school had on primary school age kids. In June 2009, the journal included an article that explored whether adults involved in resistance training programs experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth. Linda Topper is the Managing Editor and Publisher and Mark G. Fischman is Editor-in-Chief.

Articles from Vol. 71, No. 1, March

1–G G–TT–Y
[1] Prediction of One-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) Strength in Small Muscle Groups from a 4-6 RM and a 7-10 RM Submaximal Strength Test in Healthy Young Adult Women
Joon S. Park, Ben R Abadie, and Clay Daughtrey, Mississippi State University Many investigators have produced regression equations to predict 1-RM strength in male participants. However, sparse research exists concerning the prediction of 1-RM strength...
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A Biomechanical Analysis of the Yurchenko Layout Vault
Michael Bohne, Cherianne J. Mecham, Kasey Mitchell, and Julianne Abendroth-Smith, Utah State University The purpose of this study was to compare performances of the Yurchenko Layout Vault to give biomechanically based feedback to coaches in gymnastics....
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A Case Study of Gender Identity and Exercise Behavior
Jennifer Y. Mak and Carina King, Indiana University Gender difference in sport participation is one of the most popular topics in sport. Studies by Ashford, Biddle, and Goudas (1993); Gill, et al. (1996); and Fishwick, and Hayes (1989) suggested...
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Accuracy of Self-Appraisal of Ability and Motivational Beliefs of Children in Physical Education
Melissa A. Chase, Miami University The accuracy with which children assess their own physical ability can influence their motivation and future behavior. Research has found that as children age they become more accurate in their estimates of competence...
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A Comparative Analysis of Women's Sport Sponsorship from 1995 to 1999
Nancy L. Lough, University of New Mexico Women's sport has struggled for years to gain the recognition and financial support provided for other sport properties. Regardless of whether the sport classification was intercollegiate, Olympic or professional...
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A Comparison of Daily and 1 Day-a-Week Physical Education Programming
Roxanne Light and Dale McVicker, Kingwood Elementary School and Linda Carson, Andrew Hawkins, Lynn Housnei Laura Treanor, Sandra Vanin, Robert Wiegand, West Virginia University The project compared a yearlong program of daily PE to a 1 day-a-week...
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A Comparison of Fall, Spring, and Summer Semester Undergraduates in Measurement and Evaluation Class
Nestor W. Sherman, Texas A & M University--Kingsville Despite the popularity of summer courses and intercession classes, there is little evaluation being performed to determine whether courses that meet over a shorter period of time are equivalent...
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A Comparison of Inclusive Physical Education at Different Elementary Levels: Teacher and Student Behaviors in Kindergarten and First Grades versus Third and Fourth Grades Including a Child with Severe Disability
E. William Vogler, Illinois State University Physical education curriculum and teaching behaviors generally change to accommodate children's developmental needs throughout their elementary years. The concern is chat inclusive classes may adversely...
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A Comparison of Physiologic Responses to Self-Paced Water Aerobics and Self-Paced Treadmill Running
Werner W. K. Hoeger, Boise State University, Norman Kaluhiokalani, Roxane K. M. Cardejon, and Joke Kokonnen, Brigham Young University--Hawaii, Terry-Ann Spitzer Gibson, and Chad Harris, Boise State University The purpose of this study was to compare...
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A Comparison of Student Performances in Classes Which Do and Do Not Utilize Technological Displays of Information
William C. Thomson, Stephen F. Austin State University Technology has been and continues to be integrated into teaching at the university level. Some research is beginning to ascertain the impact of technology on the academic performance of students....
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A Comparison of the Effects of a Small (Women's) Basketball versus a Large (Men's) Basketball on Shooting, Dribbling, and Passing Performance
Catherine Cassidy, Jim Clemons, Paula Williams, and Susan Lyman, University of Louisiana-Lafayette In 1984, a decision by the United States Girls' and Women's Basketball Rules Committee resulted in the use of a ball that was approximately 2 ounces...
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Action Research on a Tactical Approach to Teaching a Preservice Tennis Class: The Students' Point of View
Klara Gubacs-Westmark, Montclair State University A main purpose of this study was to investigate preservice physical education teachers' perceptions regarding the introduction and implementation of a tactical approach into a physical education...
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Active Homework in Physical Education: Effects, Perceptions, and Implications
Mark A. Smith and David B. Claxton, Western Carolina University Sedentary lifestyles of American school children have been recognized as a major health concern. The American College of Sport Medicine and others have recommended that children be...
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Activity and Participation in an Alternative High School Physical Education Class
Monica Lounsbery, Grayson DuBose, and Ryan Pearce, Utah State University This study examined the participation of alternative high school physical education students with the view toward restructuring activities to maximize the participation among...
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Activity Preferences of Middle School Physical Education Students
Mike Greenwood, Jim Stillwell, Arkansas State University, and Allyn Byars, Hardin-Simmons University The on going revision of an existing middle school physical education curriculum is a vital function of the physical education faculty. While there...
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Activity Readiness and Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Attitudes in High Functioning Older Adults
Bobby Guinn, University of Texas-Pan American Much of the investigation into why elders choose to become or remain active or inactive has typically centered on the relationships of psychological constructs with exercise behavior. Well documented...
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Acute Effects of Stretching Are Not Evident in the Kinematics of the Vertical Jump
Duane Knudson, Kati Bennett, Rod Corn, David Leick, and Chris Smith, California State University-Chico Stretching during warm-up for physical activity is common practice despite recent studies showing decreased isometric and dynamic strength performance...
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A Descriptive Analysis of Fibromyalgia from the Patients' Perspective
Alice Prince, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, and Amy Bernard, University of Cincinnati, and Patricia Edsall Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a syndrome that is difficult to diagnose with symptoms that vary, primarily occurring in women....
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African American Women's Exercise Barriers: A Focus-Group Study
Pamela Crosson, Wayne State University, Weimo Zhu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Gail Timm, Wayne State University African American women experience the highest prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke, which may be due...
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Aging and Physical Activity Level Influences on Postural Stability of Women
Pamela J. Hoyes Beehler and Michael D. Hartman, University of Texas--Arlington Losing balance and falling during standing or locomotion is a threat to the safety and health of older populations. It has been estimated that one half of the population...
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A High School Teacher's Efforts to Implement the Cultural Studies Unit
Gary D. Kinchin, illinois State University From an atmosphere of concern and criticism over the quality and relevance of many secondary physical education curricular and the subsequent need for their reform (Cothran & Ennis, 1998; Lawson, 1998;...
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Alcohol Use by High School Athletes: Variation between Schools
Edgar W Shields, Jr., University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reported an overall drop from 1997 to 1998 of illicit drug use for teens, although statistical changes for alcohol and tobacco were not encouraging....
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A Longitudinal Study of Tai Chi Exercise Intervention for Older Adults in Improving Balance
Shawn P. Whitman, Yuhua Li, and Cheri N. Devault, University of Memphis Balance ability decreases with age, which results in increasing the risk of falls for people over 65 years. Many factors could contribute to the poor balance. Recent studies...
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Alternative Methodologies for Understanding Students' Conceptual Change
This symposium is designed to present several alternative research methodologies that have been used to document conceptions and conceptual change in students in physical activity and sport settings. Each researcher on the panel will introduce a particular...
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A Meta-Analysis of Weight Training for Older Adults
Daniel R. Chilek, Mississippi State University The elderly are the fastest growing population today. Weight training maybe beneficial in prolonging quality and independence of lifestyles for older adults. The effect of strength and hypertrophy have...
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Analysis of Aerobic Instructor Task Presentation Behaviors
Catherine J. Fuller, University of Southern Mississippi While there are recommendations regarding aerobics instruction, there is a paucity of research identifying behaviors related to instructor effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify...
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Analysis of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicidal Self-Injury and Concurrent Health Risk Behaviors among Adolescents
Robert M. Weiler, University of Florida, Lisa N. Pealer, University of Cincinnati, and Carrie Murray, University of Florida Reported suicide rates, while stable in the general population, have tripled among young adults in the last 40 years. From...
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An Analysis and Comparison of Research Investigating the Effects of Dance on the Self-Concept and Self-Esteem of the Participants
Sandra Minton, University of Northern Colorado The eruption of violence by youth has been blamed on the fact that individuals committing such crimes are depressed, have a low self-concept, or self-esteem. Self-concept is defined as the perception...
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An Analysis of the Most Significant Variables for Predicting Scoring Average and Money Won per Event in Professional Golf
Thomas L. Shaffer Daniel P. Connaughton, Ronald A. Siders, and John F Mahoney, University of Florida In medal play, a golfer's success depends on the ability to complete a round with as few strokes as possible. To accomplish this goal, many skills...
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An Attitudinal Analysis of Students with Orthopedic Disabilities toward General Physical Education: A Pilot Study
Daniel Webb, Mississippi State University, and Paul Jansma, The Ohio State University The inclusion of individuals with various types of disabilities into general physical education (GPE) classes has become a common practice in schools across the...
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An Examination of 7 Years of Biannual University Police Department Fitness Assessment Data
Daniel P. Connaughton, Heather A. Hausenblas, Erin A. Dannecker, and Timm R. Lovins, University of Florida When law enforcement officers (LEO) are physically fit, their abilities to perform are enhanced, they are less likely to experience injury,...
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An Investigation into the Hierarchical Nature of Motor Skill Development
Justen O'Connor, Jeff Walkley, and Bernie Holland, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University Little experimental research has been completed that has tested the theory of hierarchical acquisition of motor skill competence. Two separate...
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An Investigation of Coaching Salaries among NCAA Division I Schools
James A. Busser and Wesley Roehl, University of Nevada--Las Vegas The purpose of this study was to examine the salaries of male and female assistant and head coaches among NCAA Division I athletic programs. The archival data set used in this study...
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Application of the Stages of Change Model to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults
Betsy David, Cathy Kennedy, and Dale DeVoe, Colorado State University, and Jill Taylor Poudre Valley Hospital A variety of studies have examined the influence of stage-matched interventions on participants' adoption and maintenance of physical activity....
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Are Student Attitudes toward a Required Fitness Course Influenced by Prior Exercise Experience?
Mitchell A. Collins, Jin Wang, Charles W. Ash, and Bernard D. Goldfine, Kennesaw State University As universities increasingly incorporate fitness and wellness courses into their program of studies, it is important to ascertain student feedback...
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A Review of Negligence Cases Involving Health and Fitness Facilities: Implications for Reducing Injuries, Lawsuits and Liability
Daniel P. Connaughton, University of Florida Over the past several years, interest in physical fitness has increased greatly. Participation in many fitness activities and programs is at an all time high. ACSM (1998) reported that there were over...
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Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of Collecting Health Behavior Data from University Students Using World Wide Web Survey Technology
Lisa N. Pealer University of Cincinnati Published research suggests distinct advantages to Web-based survey research methodology specifically when compared with traditional survey research methods. One such advantage found with Web-based surveys...
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Assessment of Physical Activity with the Computer Science and Applications, Inc., Accelerometer: Laboratory versus Field Validation
Our purpose was to compare the validity of the Computer Science and Applications, (GSA) Inc., accelerometer in laboratory and field settings and establish GSA count ranges for light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Validity was determined...
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Association of Exercise Identity with Three Measures of Exercise Commitment in a Community Sample
Dean F. Anderson, Charles M. Cychosz, and Warren D. Franke, Iowa State University Sociological traditions suggest that role identities serve to give meaning and importance to past behavior as well as providing direction for future behavior. The...
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A Statewide Initiative to Improve Fundamental Motor Skill Development
Jeff Walkley, Bernie Holland, Leigh Brown, Viviene Temple, Talia Jacobson, Justen O'Connor Susie Parker and Rose Treloar Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, and Brad Rhodes, Ballarat University There is general agreement that fundamental...
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A Tale of Three High Schools: How Accurate Are Students in Estimating Substance Use among Peers?
Michelle Roland and Randy M. Page, University of Idaho The perceptions youth maintain about their peers may exert stronger influence on behavior than what is true in reality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the consistency...
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Attitudes of College Presidents toward Intercollegiate Athletics
John E. Billing, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill College presidents are ultimately responsible for their institution's athletics program. Many influential groups including the Knight Commission and the NCAA President's Commission have urged...
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Birth Control and Condom Usage among College Students
Steven R. Murray and Jessica L. Miller, Mesa State College Birth control methods are associated with the prevention of pregnancy, and condoms are shown to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), both major concerns of college...
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Blood Pressure Responses to Aero-Belt(R) and Power-Belt(R) Walking
Werner W. K. Hoeger, Lester S. V. Caldwell, and Chad Harris, Boise State University The purpose of this study was to compare blood pressure responses between walking (W) and Aero-Belt(R) walking (ABW), and W and Power-Belt(R) walking (PBW) in young-normotensive...
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Body Image and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Youth: Results from a National Survey
M. Allison Ford, Lori W. Turne, Sharon Hunt, and Sean Mulvenon, University of Arkansas-Fayetteville The U.S. government has outlined several health initiatives to reduce the incidences of cardiovascular disease and other lifestyle diseases. One...
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Building Community Coalitions as a Means to Prevent Youth Violence and Substance Use
Keith A. King and Don I. Wagner, University of Cincinnati, and Bonnie Hedricks, Ohio Prevention and Education Resource Center A coordinated approach to school violence and substance use prevention programs requires school, family, and community...
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Caloric Expenditure Differences between Individuals Exercising on a Motor-Driven Treadmill versus a Stairclimber
Jamey R. Plunk, Stephen F Austin State University, and Romana Cantu and Nestor Sherman, Texas A&M University-Kingsville (Jplunk@sfasu.edu) The trends in the fitness industry over the last decade have led to the development of a variety of unique...
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Cardiovascular Fitness Levels within Prader-Willi Syndrome Patients
Timothy L. Hatten and Ben R. Abadie, Mississippi State University Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a distinguishable pattern of altered physical development and growth retardation. The characteristics of WPS are obesity, short stature, crytoptor-chidism,...
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Challenges in Predicting Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness from the Reducer-Angmenter Scale
Christopher A. Knight, Jeffrey M. Haddad, Stephen P. Sayers, and Gary Kamen, University of Massachusetts When studying exercise-induced muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) a participant's perceived soreness is an important criterion...
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Challenging Assumptions about, in, and through Research: Identity Politics and Research in HPERD
The purpose of this session is to identify, and challenge, assumptions of HPERD research. Panelists will engage in dialogue about the assumptions of different identities (e.g., gender, race, disability, sexual orientation, class, age, multiple identities)...
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Changes in Nutritional Knowledge of Male College Athletes between 1986 and 1999
Powell McClellan, Scott Colcolough, Jon Scarlett, and Ken Chambers, Middle Tennessee State University The results of a survey conducted in 1986 concluded that the nutritional knowledge of male athletes attending a state-supported university could...
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Character Education Project: A Sportsmanship Education Program for All Students
Jennifer M. Beller and Sharon Kay Stoll, University of Idaho The rise in school violence has created great concern among educational leaders, parents, faculties, and governmental agencies, with approximately half of the states passing legislation...
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Characteristics of Students Who Carried Guns to Indiana Schools in the 1998-99 School Year
Kele Ding and William J. Bailey, Indiana Prevention Resource Center fingdzen Yang, Indiana University, and Mindy Hightower King, Indiana Prevention Resource Center Every day in America 14 young people are killed by gun violence. Recent school shooting...
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Childcare Providers' Knowledge Related to Skin Cancer Prevention
Jeffrey W. Schulz and Barry P. Hunt, Mississippi State University Incidence of skin cancer in the United States is increasing at the rate of 4% annually. Estimates for 1999 indicate that more than one million new cases will be diagnosed this year....
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Children's Control, Learning, and Performance of Motor Skills [1,2]
Key words: motor development, skill acquisition Children are amazing! Watching them perform and learn motor skills is a fascinating process. We often hear that "children don't stick with a task very long, because they have short attention spans."...
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Children's Understandings of Health and Health-Related Behavior: The Influence of Age and Information Source
Eddie Hebert and Kay Daigle, Southeastern Louisiana University, and Amelia Lee, Louisiana State University One recent shift in pedagogical research reflects an increasing interest in the conceptions and understandings of children. Driven by cognition-based...
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Client Satisfaction with Training Programs and Technical Assistance Provided by a State-Level Coordinated School Health Initiative: A Client Satisfaction Survey Approach
Robert M. Weiler and R. Morgan Pigg, Jr., University of Florida Organizations, particularly in business and medical care, often use client satisfaction surveys to assess the perceived quality of programs, services, and employee performance. Such...
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College Female Athletes and Nonathletes as Survivors of Sexual Harassment
C. Eric Gronbech, Chicago State University, Barbara Elwood Schlatter, Illinois State University, and Garth Engle, Chicago State University One in four women in college experience rape or attempted rape (Koss, 1987), 16-24-year-old women are four...
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Comparing Attitudes of Male and Female Students toward Physical Education at the Elementary and Secondary Levels
Duane Millslagle, University of Minnesota-Duluth, and James Keyes, Jr., Flandeau High School A concern involving physical education in American school systems is the poor attitudes that students have toward physical education (Earl and Stennett,...
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Comparisons of Worksite Health Screening Participants and Nonparticipants in a University Setting
Rodney Bowden, Stephen F. Austin State University Health screening volunteers in a university setting are generally different that a sample that has been randomly generated. Volunteer participants are more likely to be faculty or managerial staff...
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Conceptualizing Skillfulness in Instructional and Athletic Contexts
Kyle B. Plank, West Ottawa Public Schools, and Pamela C. Allison, Bowling Green State University Although recognition of skill, or talent, may be universal throughout the human experience, characteristics of what counts as skillful performance differ...
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Confidence as a Source of Expectancy Information: A Replication
Gloria B. Solomon, Texas Christian University Expectancy theory is a framework utilized to explain the effects of coach expectations on communicated behavior and subsequent athlete performance. Specifically, through personal cues, such as gender...
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Congruity between Assessment Criteria and Cooperating Teacher Assessment of Student Teachers
Seidu Sofa, The University of Alabama, and Reginald T-A. Ocansey, State University of New York--Brockport The study examined the extent to which CTs' written comments were consistent with the grade profile they awarded student teachers. It also...
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Connecting with the Oldest-Old: Activity Levels and Life Satisfaction
Kristine Stouffer, University of Florida Our ever increasing elderly population suggests we focus research efforts on issues of life satisfaction and productivity. Very little information is available that is specific to elderly in the oldest--old...
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Construct Validity of the Anxiety Rating Scale-2 with Individual Sport Athletes
William D. Russell Eastern Illinois University, and Richard H. Cox, University of Missouri--Columbia Empirical investigation of brief, psychometrically sound anxiety measures has recently been an area of increased concern within the competitive...
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Correlates of Parental Characteristics and Smoking Behavior among Their Children
Timothy Bungum, University of North Texas, Miguel A. Perez, California State University--Fresno, and Sander Martin and Maggie Budd, University of North Texas The negative health consequences of smoking have been known for years. Yet, smoking rates...
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Curriculum Innovation in Elementary Physical Education
Connie S. Collier, Judith L. Oslin, and Stephen Mitchell, Kent State University Summons for changing and improving the quality of physical education have been served both in our professional journals and at our professional meetings. However, much...
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Developmental Kinematics of Young Girls' Overarm Throwing
Key words: age, development, motor control, skill Studies have shown that faster throwing velocity or longer throwing distance is a collective function of children's practice experience, growth, and maturation (Halverson & Roberton, 1979; Halverson,...
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Development and Calibration of Instruments to Assess the Social Development of Elementary School Students
The social development of students is generally considered an important outcome of physical education programs. There have been very few instruments, however, validated to assess the social behaviors of students in physical education programs. This...
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Development and Validation of the Exercise Dependence Inventory
Danielle A. Symons and Heather A. Hansenblas, University of Florida The exercise dependence literature has been plagued by equivocal findings due to a myriad of terms, definitions, and measurement instruments that have lacked theoretical basis....
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Differences in Self-Reported Rationale for Perceived Increases in Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender
Key words: determinants, exercise, behaviors, Surgeon General Physical activity is a recognized component of healthy lifestyles. Inactivity is associated with several chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease (Fletcher et al., 1992) hypertension...
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Differentiation of Perception toward Coaching Performance between Administrators and Coaches of Intercollegiate Athletics
Li Chen, Towson University Effective coaching is a fundamental ingredient of successful athletic programs (Docheff, 1989). Coaching evaluation serves as an administrative tool to estimate the effectiveness of coaching personnel and to bridge the...
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Difficulties of Arm and Shoulder Girdle Muscular Strength and Endurance Tests: An Application of IRT into Physical Education and Exercise Science
Suhak Oh, Ted A. Baumgartner, and Hyuk Chung, University of Georgia The use of psychometric modeling has been recently increased in physical education and exercise science. Item response theory (IRT) is one of psychometric modeling that treats latent...
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Divided Attention Costs in Nonspeeded Secondary Tasks
Mark G. Fischman, Seth J. Kinley, and Craig A. Lane, Auburn University It is well known that the reaction time ([RT.sub.2]) to the second of two closely spaced stimuli is slower than a control [RT.sub.2] in which there is no first stimulus. This...
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Do Emotional Connections Protect University Students from Suicide?
Keith A. King, University of Cincinnati Suicide currently ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth 15 to 24 years of age. While the overall suicide rate for the general population has remained stable since the 1950s, the rate for young...
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"Does It Matter If You Win or Lose?" an Assessment of the Financial Benefits Associated with Winning a Football Championship
Clay Daughtrey and Matt Brown, Mississippi State University The value of football programs to a university is frequently debated. Proponents state that a team helps develop university pride in students and alumni and helps market the university....
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Effect of a Progressive Time Delay Procedure on Motor Skill Completion Duration of Participants with Disabilities
Shihui Chen, University of Texas-Pan American, Ernest Lange, University of New Mexico, Jiabei Zhang, Western Michigan University, Yongtai Wang, Georgia State University, and John Liu, Springfield College Progressive time delay (PTD) is a response...
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Effect of Magnetic Insoles on Postural Sway Scores in Men and Women during a Static Balance Test
Rory Suomi, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point The use of magnetic therapy on the human body for therapeutic benefits has been a popular method for relieving pain and restoring joint function for the past decade. The major premise for success...
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Effect of Practice Sequence on the Bilateral Acquisition of a Novel Motor Skill
Jaclyn N. Chavez, Utah State University, and Cheryl A. Coker New Mexico State University Research supports the idea that a greater degree of transfer occurs asymmetrically, however, optimal practice sequence (preferred to nonpreferred limb or vice...
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Effects of Chronic Ginseng Supplementation on Affect and Mood: Results of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial
Bradley J. Cardinal, Oregon State University, and Hermann-J Engels, Wayne State University Ginseng is a popular, commercially available dietary supplement that is purported to have a number of psychological benefits. The purpose of this study was...
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Effects of Ecological-Based Individualized Physical Education Programs on Teaching Task-Analyzed Motor Activities
Jiabei Zhang, Debra Berkey, Beth Engler, Jeffrey Castonia, Danielle Gardner, Lori Jacob, Michelle McCauley, Lean Ringelberg, and Jessica Ruczynski, Western Michigan University The purpose was to determine the effects of ecological-based individualized...
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Effects of Initiative Game Problem Solving Activities on Fifth Grade Students' Use of Critical Thinking Skills in Physical Education
Michael P. Maina, Valdosta State University In an age where technology continues to become increasingly complex, the necessity for all people, including children, to exhibit knowledge beyond rote memorization becomes vitally important. By creating...
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Effects of Postural Constraints on Children's Catching Behavior
Key words: posture, perception and action, skill acquisition, dynamic interceptive actions Traditionally, there has been a tendency to explain differences between children who are good and poor catchers as a function of developmental differences...
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Effects of Skill Analysis Training on Elementary Physical Education Specialists
Jeanne Raudensky, Mississippi State University, and Sandra A. Stroot, The Ohio State University Individuals have presumed that physical education teachers develop analytic ability of sport skill performances through professional preparation courses...
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Effects of Three Practice Schedules on the Learning of Field Hockey Skills in Fourth and Fifth Graders
Murali Nair and Linda K. Bunker University of Virginia, and Nancy J. E. Markos, Broadus Wood Elementary School (VA) The limited number of studies on practice variability that have used children as participants seem to indicate that children do not...
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Effects of Uncontrollability and Failure on the Development of Learned Helplessness in Perceptual-Motor Tasks
The aim of this study was to distinguish between the roles of uncontrollability and failure on learned helplessness in a perceptual-motor task. Forty-eight junior high school students were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 (Controllability: Contingent vs....
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"Everybody's Not Doing It: Misperceptions of the Prevalence of Recent Sexual Activity among College Students
Randy M. Page and Michelle Roland, University of Idaho The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of campus norms for recent sexual activity, having more than four lifetime sexual partners, and decision to abstain from sexual intercourse...
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Evolving Conceptions of Sport and Physical Education: China as a Case Study
Weidong Li, Amelia Lee, Melinda Solmon, and Li Li, Louisiana State University Conceptions of sport and physical education over the past 50 years have changed as a reflection of political events, cultural influences, and social change. As a result...
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Examination of the Stages of Exercise Change with Middle School Children
Heather A. Hausenblas, Danielle A. Symons, David S. Fleming, and Daniel P. Connaughton, University of Florida Although the stages of change construct from the Transtheoretical Model has been used extensively to identify individual's motivational...
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Examining the Attitudinal Component of Loyalty toward a Professional Sports Team
Daniel C. Funk, University of Louisville, and Donna L. Pastore, The Ohio State University The notion that loyalty plays a critical role in generating repeat purchase behavior remains an implicit assumption by academic scholars and practitioners....
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Examining the Effects of an Interactive Computer Program on Preservice Teachers' Use of Skill Prompting
Mary Jo Sariscsany and Brad Mears, University of Northern Colorado, and Julie Deny, St. Thomas College Recent research (Masser, 1993) supports the use of refining tasks containing critical cue(s) as an effective instructional tool. Cues provide...
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Exercise Intervention for Cancer-Related Fatigue
Carolyn A. Dennehy, Carole M. Schneider, Susan D. Carter, Ann Bentz, Kristi Stephens, and Kelly Quick, University of Northern Colorado Despite the rise in cancer morbidity, there is a significant decrease in cancer mortality rates. With an increase...
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Exercise Participation, Self-Efficacy and Fear of Falling in Older Adults
Danya Nunley, Bonita L. Marks, Edgar Shields, and Madelyn Ashley, University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the exercise participation habits of community-dwelling older adults and...
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Exercise-Related Cardiovascular Reactivity in Alone and Social Support Conditions
Dan Hollander, Southeastern Louisiana University, Lynda CianoFederoff, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Frank Perna and Kevin Larkin, West Virginia University One predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease is increased heart rate and blood...
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Exploring Physical Self-Perception Dimensions among the Youth in Korea
Chang-Hoon Seong, University of Inchon, Byoung Jun Kim and Taeho Yu, Seoul National University, and Young In Chang, Sunchon National University The study of physical self-concept and self-esteem has been rejuvenated in the past years (Fox, 1997;...
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Factors Associated with Extreme Weight Concerns and Unhealthy Eating Patterns among Young Korean Women
Heeseung R. Ryu, Roseann M. Lyle, Gerald C. Hyner, Marlene K. Tappe, and George P. McCabe, Purdue University (ryuhs@worldnet.att.net; rlyle@purdue.edu) Western culture has had a dramatic influence on the beauty standards of Asians including Koreans....
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Fair Play Everyday: A Sportsmanship Training Program for Coaches
David Hansen, Sharon Kay Stoll, and Jennifer M. Beller, University of Idaho Offering sportsmanship training and education to coaches has always been a dilemma. How to educate or train in a time effective manner as well as inspire coaches to learn...
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Fat-Fun-Fit Project: Effects of a School-Based Weight Loss Intervention Program in Hong Kong Children
Sai C. Hui, Wing C. Lau, and Pak Y. Yuen, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Several weight loss intervention programs have been launched in Hong Kong previously but the effects were minimal due to the failure of combining medical care, diet monitoring,...
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Fifth Grade Students' Liking of and Participation in Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity during Recess and a Structured Fitness Break
Philip Scruggs and Sandy Beveridge, University of Utah The purposes of this study were to examine the hypotheses that fifth grade students would engage in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a structured fitness...
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Gender and Team Differences on Present and Future Sport Consumption Behavior and on Environmental Factors Associated with Spectator Attendance
Galen T. Trail and Dean F. Anderson, Iowa State University Sport spectating is a popular leisure activity in the United States, however there has been limited study of sport spectator consumption behavior. We were interested in the differences between...
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