Scottish Language

Articles

Vol. 31-32, Annual

Gaelic-English Bilingual Children's Aspectual Awareness: Grammaticality Judgements of English Stative-Progressives
1. INTRODUCTION In present-day Scotland multilingualism is very much a social, political as well as an educational reality. There are notable linguistic minorities from Europe and elsewhere as well as a relatively small, but culturohistorically...
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'I'll Cross Dat Brig Whin I Come Til Him': Grammatical Gender in the Orkney and Shetland Dialects of Scots
1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the current paper is to investigate possible remnants of a grammatical gender system found in the Orkney and Shetland dialects of Scots. The fact that Orkney and Shetland dialects have something of a grammatical gender...
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Brose, Atholl Brose, Spurtle and Thivel
The Dictionary of the Scots Language provides a familiar definition of brose as 'oatmeal with boiling water added'. The first attested use in Scots is from Urquhart's Rabelais (1653). Somewhat surprisingly, the dictionary also states a possible etymology...
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The Thistle and the Words: Scotland in Late Modern English Lexicography
1. INTRODUCTION On 21 October 1773 Robert Fergusson published a satirical poem in the Weekly Magazine with the title 'To Dr Samuel Johnson: Food for a new Edition of his Dictionary' (Boulton 1974/1995: 231-233; Brown 2012: 214-216): in it Fergusson...
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An Examination of the Use of Language in Three Intercultural Team Projects in a Scottish University
1. INTRODUCTION The ability to work effectively in teams is a necessary skill for much of the modern workforce and as universities look to maximise the employability of their graduates for a variety of reasons, project and group-work have become...
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The Emergence of Scottish Standard English and the Role of Second Earl Fife
1. INTRODUCTION It is recognised that the present day prestige language in Scotland is Scottish Standard English (see for instance, Corbett et al. 2003: 1-2; Smith 2000: 162). Aitken (1979: 95) and Millar (2012: 72) agree that this variety has its...
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Insular Languages, Global Ideologies: The Ideologies of a [Begin strikethrough]British, Scottish[end Strikethrough], Northern Island Community
1. INTRODUCTION This paper seeks to make a case for the analytic utility of the theoretical notion known as language ideologies (Silverstein 1979; Kroskrity 2010) and its introduction into that body of contemporary (sociolinguistic) literature,...
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Scots: Studies in Its Literature and Language
Scots: Studies in its Literature and Language John M. Kirk and Iseabail Macleod (eds). Rodopi, 2013 ISBN 9789042037397, 65 [euro], 309pp. Scholarly Festschrifts dedicated to a specific scholar usually mark the coronation of the achievements...
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The Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language
The Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language Moray Watson and Michelle MacLeod (eds.). Edinburgh University Press, 2010. ISBN 9780748637096, 21.99 [pounds sterling], 376pp. This is an important and valuable book, and the editors and publisher...
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A Guide to Scots Bird Names
A Guide to Scots Bird Names, second edition Robin Jackson. Ptarmigan Press, 2013 ISBN 978-0954061838, 9.50 [pounds sterling]. 44p., illustrated. This is a beautiful book about a subject near to many Scots speakers' hearts --their childhood...
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Vol. 30, Annual

Latin and Scots Versions of Scottish Medieval Burgh Laws (Leges Quatuor Burgorum)
1. Early Scottish burgh laws This paper stems from an exploration of recurrent patterns in legal and administrative texts written in medieval and early modern Scottish burghs (Kopaczyk forthcoming). (1) In the analysis of fixed formulae and stable...
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Scots and English and Hamilton's Catechism
Introduction The work discussed in the following paragraphs--the Catechism issued in 1552 by John Hamilton (d. 1571), metropolitan archbishop of St Andrews and primate of Scotland--is interesting not only for its exposition of theology, but also...
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Terms for Fish in the Dialects of Scotland's East Coast Fishing Communities: Evidence for Lexical Attrition
1. Introduction In communities dedicated to the fishing trade it is almost inevitable that a wider range of words for different species and kinds offish should be found in the local dialect than would be the case in a community which only purchases...
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Older Scots: A Linguistic Reader
Older Scots: a Linguistic Reader Jeremy L. Smith. Scottish Text Society Fifth Series no. 9. Boydell and Brewer, 2012; ISBN 9781897976340, 14.99 [pounds sterling], 253pp. Like a number of useful textbooks, this reader has grown out of materials...
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Ambivalent Self-Understanding? Change, Language and Boundaries in the Shetland Islands (1970-Present)
Ambivalent Self-Understanding? Change, Language and Boundaries in the Shetland Islands (1970-Present) Atina Nihtinen, [Angstrom]bo. [Angstrom]bo Akademi University Press, 2011.313 pp. The author of this work describes it as a dissertation which...
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Scotland in Definition: A History of Scottish Dictionaries
Scotland in Definition: A History of Scottish Dictionaries Iseabail Macleod and J. Derrick McClure. John Donald, 2012. ISBN 9781906566494, 25, 342 [pounds sterling] pp. This fine book acts as a worthy reminder both to Scots and those furth...
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Jamieson's Dictionary of Scots: The Story of the First Historical Dictionary of the Scots Language
Jamieson's Dictionary of Scots: The Story of the First Historical Dictionary of the Scots Language Susan Rennie. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199639403, 70, 282 [pounds sterling] pp. It would have been a considerable privilege to have...
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Vol. 29, Annual

Notes on Some Cruces in Middle Scots Poetry: Henryson's Bawdronis, Dart Oxin and Bacis, Dunbar's Strenever and Wallidrag, Gavin Douglas's Lundeys Lure, Threte and Treilzeis
Henryson's 'Bawdronis' the Cat In his Fables, Henryson tells of the town mouse and country mouse, and what happened (325-9) when cats found them eating. And scantlie had thay drunkin anis or twyse, Quhen in come Gib Hunter, our jolie cat,...
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The Death of Orkney Norn and the Genesis of Orkney Scots
1. Orkney Scots and the linguistic past Over the last hundred years and more, the nature of the modern Scots dialects of Orkney and how this relates to the islands' linguistic and cultural history has occasionally been accorded scholarly interest....
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'This Unique Dialect': The Profile of Shetland Dialect in a Typology of World Englishes
1. Introduction This paper is inspired by the Handbook of Varieties of English (Kortmann, Schneider et al. (2004 [2008])), henceforth referred to as 'the Handbook'. With its wealth of data and strict framework the Handbook can be claimed to be the...
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Dialect in the Modern Languages Classroom: A Bidialectal Approach
Background Non-Standard Dialect in the Classroom With the publication of Non-Standard Speech and the Teaching of English (Stewart, 1964a), debates over how to teach children who primarily speak in a non-standard dialect came to the forefront...
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A Scottish Trace in Russian Toponymy: Two Russian Place-Names Revisited
In Russia there is quite a number of toponyms derived or copied from personal or place names of western European origin, mostly German. These resulted from several waves of massive immigration of Westerners, first to what used to be called Muscovite...
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Pernickety
The Oxford English Dictionary (2010) defines pernickety when used of a person as 'exacting about details; particular, careful; punctilious; spec. putting excessive emphasis on trivial or minor details; fussy' and of a task as 'requiring particular...
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The Plight of Three Celtic Languages-Welsh, Irish and Gaelic
The Plight of Three Celtic Languages--Welsh, Irish and Gaelic. Keith Hamnett, The Edwin Mellen Press, Ceredigion, 2010. ISBN 9780773436398, 246 pp. This single-authored volume appears to be very timely as growth continues apace in the developing...
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Shetland Words: A Dictionary of the Shetland Dialect
Shetland Words: A Dictionary of the Shetland Dialect. By A and A Christie-Johnston (Contributing Editor: Neil Anderson). Lerwick, Shetland: The Shetland Times Ltd. 2010 122 pp. 16.00 [pounds sterling]. ISBN 9781904746584. A Shetland spellchecker is...
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Vol. 27, Annual

'Many Strange and Peculiar Affairs': Description, Narration and Evaluation in Scottish Emigrants' Letters of the 19th Century
There is no foreign land; it is the traveller only that is foreign, and now and again, by a flash of recollection, lights up the contrasts of the earth. Robert Louis Stevenson, The Silverado Squatters, 1883 1. INTRODUCTION The epigraph chosen...
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The Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech-A User's Guide
INTRODUCTION Over the last two decades, the increasing availability of digitised corpora of language has revolutionised linguistic scholarship (for an overview of current developments, see McEnery, Xiao and Tono, 2006). The ability to perform...
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Some Gaelic Etymologies for Scots Words: Drubly, Blad, Gilravage and Gaberlunzie
DRUBLY The adjectives drubly and drumly occur in Scots from the earliest records onwards. Henryson tells how Orpheus finds Tantalus in an Underworld torrent, where he is tormented by thirst despite being up to his neck in water. Syne come...
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The Gaelic of Stirlingshire
We are greatly indebted to all those who were involved in the Gaelic Section of the Linguistic Survey of Scotland, between the time of its establishment in 1950 and the years 1994-1997, when many of its findings were published in the five volumes...
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Telleyr, Anguen, Gulath, and the Life of St Kentigern
Amongst early sources for language in Scotland is a Latin Life of St Kentigern (whose death is dated in the Annales Cambriae to 612), written about 1180 by Jocelyn of Furness. His sources contain much information on Cumbric names in Strathclyde...
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The Ongoing Influence of Lowland Scots, Irish and Ulster English on the Developing Varieties of Ulster Scots
1. INTRODUCTION. Within a contact-linguistic framework, this paper will assess the linguistic influence of Lowland Scots and Irish as it is manifested in two regionally specific varieties of Ulster Scots (North-Eastern Ulster Scots and Donegal...
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Skandinavisch-Schottische Sprachbeziehungen Im Mittelalter. der Altnordische Lehneinfluss
Skandinavisch-schottische Sprachbeziehungen im Mittelalter. Der altnordische Lehneinfluss, ed. Kries, Susanne. (North-Western European Language Evolution Supplement vol. 20). Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark. pages xii + 498. ISBN 87-7838-873-2...
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Beyond the Fringe of the Fringe-The Marginality of the Scottish Gaelic Learner
Reversing Language Shift: the Social Identity and Role of Scottish Gaelic Learners, by Alasdair MacCaluim. (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 17.) Belfast: C16 Ollscoill na Banriona, 2007. Adult learners constitute a small but...
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Scottish Gaelic Speech and Writing: Register Variation in an Endangered Language
Scottish Gaelic Speech and Writing: Register variation in an endangered language, by William Lamb. Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 16. Belfast: Clo Ollscoil na Banriona, 2008. This groundbreaking study of register variation...
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Vol. 26, Annual

Place-Names and the Scots Language: The Marches of Lexical and Onomastic Research
I. INTRODUCTION Lexicography and onomastics are two closely related disciplines that are often of benefit to one another. Both also make an important contribution to wider aspects of language study. Onomastic evidence for Scots can help to shed...
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The Etymology and Meanings of Eldritch
The meanings of the early attestations of the Scots word eldritch are given in the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (hereafter DOST) as 'Belonging to, or resembling, the elves or similar beings' and 'Connected with, proceeding from, suggestive...
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A Gaelic Etymology for Dyvour 'Debtor'
Dyvour makes its entry into Scots in line 410 of Dunbar's Tretis of the Twa Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, where the last exalts in the death of an unloved spouse: Deid is now that dyvour and dollin in erd: With him deit all my dule and my drery...
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One More East Slavic Parallel for the Language Situation in the Lowlands
The language situations in the East Slavic countries present several noteworthy parallels providing new perspectives on the dialect continuum in Lowland Scotland. (1) In this respect Belarus is by no means less attractive for sociolinguistic comparisons...
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Public Policy and Scots in Northern Ireland
In a remarkable scene in Jean Cocteau's 1950 film Orphee, an acclaimed poetry review entitled Nudisme is revealed to be nothing more than a series of blank pages. While Cocteau may have wished to satirise the existentialism of the day, contemporary...
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Migration, Family and Education in Gaelic Policy Perspective (1)
MIGRATION AND GAELIC COMMUNITY DILUTION Since questions on Gaelic were first asked on the population census in 1881, there has been a rapid contraction of the Gaelic-majority area in Scotland. At the end of the nineteenth century the area where...
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Measuring Gaelic Language Planning
A DIACHRONIC SURVEY OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES This paper looks at four documents produced in the last twenty years which are indicators of Gaelic development principles at their relative times of publication. These documents are measured...
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Some Scottish Names, Including Vacomagi, Boresti, Iudanbyrig, Aberlessic and Dubuice
AN EMENDATION TO PTOLEMY'S VACOMAGI The 'Vacomagi' were a people of North Britain, whom Ptolemy called the Ouakomagoi, and who have been identified with the Ravenna Cosmography's Maromago (Rivet and Smith 1979: 484-5). Their location and name have...
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Vol. 25, Annual

The Ausbau of Present-Day Scots
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of two aspects of modern-day Scots: its range of use (which is larger than sometimes assumed) and its standardisation (or lack thereof). Both aspects have come to be subsumed under the term ausbau, (1) following...
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Anglo-English Influences on Scottish Standard English Speakers: Trap/Bath/Palm/Start and Lot/Cloth/Thought/North/Force (1)
1. INTRODUCTION Current related work concerning Anglo-English influences on Scottish English includes that of Stuart-Smith (1999 and elsewhere (2)) on London English influences on WC Glasgow English. Stuart-Smith found evidence of London English...
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Smoking, Drinking, Dancing and Singing on the High Seas: Steamships and the Uses of Smuid in Scottish Gaelic
Speakers of Scottish Gaelic are well used to the compound noun batasmuide ('boat of steam, steamship') and its noun-phrase variants, such as bata na smuid(e), which are employed fairly regularly in day-to-day Gaelic. The term, especially in its second...
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Three Celtic Names: Venicones, Tuesis and Soutra
The Celtic expressions discussed here have different origins. Venicones and Tuesis, occurring in Ptolemy, refer to a Grampian tribe and to the fiver Spey. Soutra, in contrast, is a medieval settlement in Midlothian. The forms are set out chronologically....
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Vol. 24, Annual

Onomasiological Variation and Change in the Older Scots Vocabulary of Marriage
1 AIMS AND SCOPE In a paper presented at the Third International Conference on the Languages of Scotland (Edinburgh 1991), Professor Christian Kay proposed a comparison of the lexicon of two different varieties of English: Scots and Old English....
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Sched Apon the Rude? Reflections on Scots and Religion
The development of religion and language in Scotland has seen great disjunctures over the last 500 years, changes which might alternatively be seen as cathartic episodes of rebirth, modernisation and popular enfranchisement or, alternatively, as catalysts...
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The Distinctiveness of the Doric: Home-Grown or Imported (1)?
INTRODUCTION Where reference is made to the Mid Northern dialect of Scots spoken (and written) in Aberdeen, Banff, Moray and Naim (SND: xxii) otherwise known as the Doric, this very often includes an accompanying comment about how distinctive its...
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Ptolemy's Taexali, Caelis, Loxa and Eitis
TAEXALI Taexali and Taexalorum Promontorium have been amongst the mysteries of Scotland, though not a total one, since the locations of this people and headland have always been known. But the form and meaning of the name have been obscure. Comment...
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Prosodic Characteristics of Orkney and Shetland Dialects: An Experimental Approach
PROSODIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ORKNEY AND SHETLAND DIALECTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH. By Klaske van Leyden. Utrecht: Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap (LOT) 2004. Graduating PhD students in the Netherlands are required to publish their doctoral...
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Garret Fitzgerald: Irish-Speaking in the Pre-Famine Period: A Study Based on the 1911 Census Data for People Born before 1851 and Still Alive in 1911 (2003)
Garret Fitzgerald: IRISH-SPEAKING IN THE PRE-FAMINE PERIOD: A STUDY BASED ON THE 1911 CENSUS DATA FOR PEOPLE BORN BEFORE 1851 AND STILL ALIVE IN 1911 (2003), Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Volume 103C, Number 5, 2003 ISSN 0035 899, pp. 191-283....
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