Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, & Research

Articles

Vol. 40, No. 1, Winter

Play Therapy and Beyond: An Interview with Garry Landreth
Garry Landreth is nationally and internationally known for his significant contributions to the development of play therapy. His extensive work in group counseling, play therapy, and filial therapy have resulted in more than 150 publications and videos....
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Parent Preferences for Secondary School Counselor Activities
This study examined parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. Researchers sampled 250 parents of high school students utilizing a demographic questionnaire and an adapted version of the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale (SCARS;...
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Texas LPC Interns and the Cost of Supervision
The demographics and perceptions of supervision fees of Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) Interns in Texas were explored using a mixed-method online survey. Internships for LPC Interns were most commonly undertaken in agency settings, whereas the...
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Wicca and Neo-Paganism: A Primer for Counselors
Wiccans and Neo-Pagans are a growing and historically marginalized group, yet little scholarship is available that addresses their specific counseling needs. The authors discuss the origins of Wicca and Neo-Paganism, population characteristics of Wiccans...
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Vol. 39, No. 2, Summer

A Narrative Approach to Terminating Therapy
Increasing the diversity of strategies for facilitating meaningful termination of therapy may be useful to practitioners in a number of settings including those conducting group guidance in the schools and meeting with clients in a private practice or...
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Suicide Postvention in Schools: The Role of the School Counselor
Many school counselors may encounter the suicide of a student during their careers. In this article, the author discusses postvention planning in the event of student suicide. Specifically, the role of the school counselor in responding to school crises,...
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The Lived Experience of Black Collegiate Males with Absent Fathers: Another Generation
The phenomenon of absent fathers is increasing in the Black community and insight from Black males raised in these households is needed to understand how they persevere and succeed. This study explored the life experiences of collegiate Black males raised...
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The Effect of Ethnicity on Multicultural Competence
The contribution of ethnicity to counseling students' multicultural counseling competence (MCC) was revisited and expanded upon by examining differences among and between European American, African American, and Latino counseling students. Results revealed...
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Vol. 39, No. 1, Winter

From Counselor-in-Training to Professional School Counselor: Understanding Professional Identity Development
Professional identity development of counselors is ever evolving throughout counselors' training and careers. Professional school counselors may experience some role confusion if they do not adhere to national and state models that promote them as leaders,...
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An International Perspective on Professional Counselor Identity
Recent developments in technology and communication contributed to increased international collaboration in counseling practice, education, and research. The availability of information outlining the international trends in professional counseling allows...
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Emerging Counselor Identity through the American Counseling Association and the Texas Counseling Association: An Historical Perspective
The American Counseling Association (ACA) and the Texas Counseling Association (TCA) both are professional organizations with distinct and unique ties to the counseling profession. Though their existence is nearly parallel, if not congruent, as both...
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Editorial Perspective
This special issue on counselor identity presents a wide array of discussion points on counselor identity. With the advent of 20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling (Kaplan & Gladding, 2011), the issue of counselor identity became a central...
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Counselor Identity - A National Imperative
The author presents evidence that supports Professional Counseling as a national, professional organization. The history of the profession will be briefly delineated followed by the component parts of professional identity relevant for professional counselors....
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Vol. 38, No. 3, Summer

Postmodern Applications within Latino/a Cultures
Postmodern approaches, specifically those based on ideas from social constructionism such as narrative therapy and solution-focused therapy, are currently being used in a variety of contexts and with multiple cultures. The authors suggest ways in which...
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Ethical Principles Revisited
The 2005 ACA Code of Ethics places less emphasis on the rules members should follow and more emphasis on members aspiring to the highest standards of the profession. The five ethical principles discussed in this article constitute one part of a tripartite...
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Editorial Perspective: State of the Journal
The Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, and Research (JPC) is a national journal abstracted in EBSCO. The transition to a national journal began in 2005 when the Texas Counseling Association was recognized for the Best Branch Journal...
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Trainings in Suicide Awareness: A Focus on School Settings
School counselors at all grade levels are faced with student suicidal ideation on a regular basis. As the primary mental health providers at their sites, school counselors are the ideal professionals to provide suicide awareness training for school staff...
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Experiences of Implementing a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program at the Elementary Level
School counselors face many challenges implementing a Comprehensive Developmental Guidance and Counseling Program ([CDGCP] Dahir, Burnham, & Stone, 2009). This case study explored the experiences of a program director's, an administrator's, and three...
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Vol. 38, No. 2, Winter

Emerging Concerns regarding the Hiring Practices of School Counselors: A Delphi Study
Across the state of Texas, individuals are routinely hired to serve in the capacity of professional school counselors without the proper training or credentials. This Delphi study attempted to generate a consensus among counselor educators and directors...
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The Initial Development of the Multicultural Supervision Scale
The Multicultural Supervision Scale (MSS) was administered to 304 counselor educators and clinical supervisors across the United States. A three factor model comprising 39 items seemed to define the contours of the construct of multicultural issues in...
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Editorial Perspective: Writing Qualitative Manuscripts
Qualitative methodology is the appropriate choice for many of the kinds of questions counselors and counselor educators wish to investigate. Qualitative researchers are likely to be those who enjoy "the endless possibilities to learn more about people......
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The Status of Crisis Preparation in Counselor Education: A National Study and Content Analysis
Many counselors report crisis as a primary presenting concern in their work settings. The need to attend to crisis preparation is highlighted in the new CACREP Standards. To date, the counselor education literature has contained little attention to crisis...
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Enhancing School Counselor Leadership in Multicultural Advocacy
As the nation becomes more demographically diverse, it is imperative that school counselors take a leadership role in promoting multicultural advocacy. This major ethical responsibility cannot happen without active interventions on several levels. A...
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Vol. 38, No. 1, Spring

Professional Acculturation: A Conceptual Framework for Counselor Role Induction
The authors examine factors that affect professional acculturation in the process of role induction. Previous works have omitted discussions concerning layers of values and forms of power affecting the worldview of counselors. The initial foci concern...
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Family Violence, Trauma and Social Learning Theory
Family violence is a historical social problem that continues to exist among modern societies. The authors of this paper identify how children learn violent behaviors and continue to teach these behaviors to their own offspring. This paper also discusses...
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Critical Incidents in Practicum Supervision: Supervisees' Perspectives
Trainees (N= 25) were asked to describe a critical incident occurring during practicum supervision that contributed to their growth as a counselor. Categories of themes and resulting subthemes emerged and included (a) positive/supportive (feedback, observation/vicarious...
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Specialty Training in Counselor Education Programs: An Exploratory Study
We investigated the training of licensed professional counselors in Texas by focusing on how students receive expertise in specialty areas such as substance abuse, sexual concerns, domestic violence, play therapy, family therapy, and art and music therapy....
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An Exploration of Accountability Practices of School Counselors: A National Study
Accountability practices of school counselors deserve attention and is a timely topic considering the direction of education reforms toward data driven practice. School counselors (n = 1,704) nationwide were surveyed online to determine their current...
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Vol. 37, No. 2, Fall

Strategies and Resources for Conducting Online Counseling
Drawing from clinical, supervisory, and research resources related to implementing online counseling services, the author provides practical suggestions for counselors considering or using the Internet as a counseling medium. The author outlines ethical...
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End-of-Life Decision Making: A Slippery Slope
Advances in medical technology have changed how we view and ultimately define death. What it means to be terminally ill, now more than ever, raises difficult moral/ethical questions for all concerned. These changes have created a new role and associated...
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Bullies Grow Up and Go to Work
Workplace aggression has been a prominent topic of articles in business, management, and organizational literature. Counselors have not responded with the same level of attention even though workplace aggression can devastate the mental health of targets...
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Clinical Supervision for International Counselors-in-Training: Implications for Supervisors
International students face many challenges as counselors-in-training. This study sought to identify, through a phenomenological examination, the supervisory needs, experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of international counselors-in-training during...
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Cultural and Developmental Variations in the Resiliencies Promoted by School Counselors
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)Little is known about whether school counselors actually target resiliency in their guidance and counseling efforts. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of 314 school counselors, researchers...
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Vol. 37, No. 1, Spring

Addressing Immigrant and Refugee Issues in Multicultural Counselor Education
Although counseling, psychological, and mental health research has been conducted on the needs and experiences of immigrants and refugees living in the United States, inclusion of these topics is not as prevalent or consistent in neither counselor preparation...
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Theoretical Orientation and Play Therapy: Examining Therapist Role, Session Structure, and Therapeutic Objectives
Within the context of play therapy, the author will compare and contrast three important therapeutic dimensions - therapist role, session structure, and therapeutic objective - between three distinct theoretical orientations: 1) child-centered play therapy;...
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An Overview of Systemic-Organizational Consultation for Professional Counselors
This literature review integrates classic and recent scholarship on the framework of systemic-organizational consultation. The authors identify and describe the principles of systemic-organizational consultation, and assert that adoption of this model...
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Cluster Analysis of Impaired Counseling Students: A Survey of Master's Level CACREP-Accredited Programs
We investigated how a set of behavioral indicators aided in identifying impaired counseling students who were subjected to remediation and termination. The cases of remediation and termination were then examined using cluster analysis to identify clusters...
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The Suicide Probability Scale: A Means to Assess Substance Abusing Clients' Suicide Risk
Although substance abusing clients may not be the primary treatment population that most counselors serve, it is nearly inevitable that at one time or another, the vast majority of counselors will encounter clients presenting with substance use issues....
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Vol. 36, No. 2, Fall/Winter

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2 and MMPI-A) and Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature
Personality measures of adults and adolescents who were sexually abused as children can provide valuable information of the negative effects of the abuse experience. This paper reports on the findings of studies that explore the results of the Minnesota...
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Crisis-Specific Peer Supervision of School Counselors: The P-SAEF Model
School counselors are called upon to respond to an array of crisis situations involving the potential for imminent harm. Many school counselors report inadequate preparation for crisis intervention (Allen et al., 2002; King et al., 1999), and few school...
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Counselors in the Managed Care Era: The Efficacy of the Data-Based Problem Solver Model
It has become increasingly important in the managed care era for counselors to be accountable for the services they provide. This study utilized the Data-Based Problem Solver Model as a guide for counselor preparation and subsequently employed the model...
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Counselor Educators' Perceptions of Training Requirements
Counselor educators were surveyed regarding their perceptions of a proposed increase in the required number of semester hours for community counselors from 48 hours to 60 hours. Twenty-four participants (49%) indicated a preference for keeping the current...
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Enhanced Awareness of Countertransference
Counselor educators and supervisors bear an enormous responsibility to produce counselors who are not only skillful in their practice, but also professionally responsible. Professional responsibility includes being self -aware of one's internal processes...
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Vol. 36, No. 1, Spring

Counselor Educators' Perceptions of Training Requirements
Counselor educators were surveyed regarding their perceptions of a proposed increase in the required number of semester hours for community counselors from 48 hours to 60 hours. Twenty-four participants (49%) indicated a preference for keeping the current...
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Editorial Perspective
Over the past three years, the Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research (JPC), has had the opportunity to transition from a branch journal to a national journal. Dr. Chester Robinson announced in the spring issue of 2005 that...
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Counseling Techniques for Adolescent Females with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome affects up to 10% of adolescent girls and is accompanied by devastating physical symptoms and mental health issues (Ehrmann, 2005). This article reviews current literature on the nature of polycystic ovary syndrome including...
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An Analysis of Texas High School Counselors' Roles: Actual and Preferred Counseling Activities
The purpose of our investigation was to explore the differences between the actual and preferred activities of high school counselors in Texas using the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale [SCARS] (Scarborough, 2002). Evident in the results was that...
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An Interview with Robert C. Berg: A Retrospective Look at the Career of a Group Counseling Teacher and Facilitator
During his 38-year career, Bob Berg created a model of training for group practitioners. The following is an interview with Robert C. Berg, Professor Emeritus with the University of North Texas and Visiting Professor, Southern Methodist University, in...
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Vol. 35, No. 2, Fall

Supervision of Counselor Trainees with Clients in Crisis
Supervision of counselors working in college counseling centers whose clients are in the midst of an immediate mental health crisis is a complex process. This article reviews this neglected subject and makes specific suggestions for supervisors and their...
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Gender Differences in the Supervisory Relationship
It is rare to address gender issues in counseling supervision and little research has been devoted to these. This review describes supervisor and supervisee gender expectations, role disparities, supervisory relationship differences, and variations in...
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Helping Students and Teachers CONNECT: An Intervention Model for School Counselors
Research has demonstrated that the quality of the student-teacher relationship affects students' social/emotional development, academic achievement, and classroom functioning. Positive student-teacher relationships help promote a pattern of continued...
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Spiritual Well-Being and Psychological Well-Being in Mexican-American Catholics
Spirituality is increasingly taking on greater importance within the field of counseling. This study attempts to promote greater understanding of the relationship between spirituality and health. Within the broad umbrella of spirituality as it relates...
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Editorial Perspective
From the Executive Editor:This Fall 2007 issue of The Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research marks the final installment under my watch. I've learned much about myself and editing through publishing 6 issues of The Journal....
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The Professional School Counselor's Challenge: Accountability
Accountability Historical PerspectiveAccountability is increasingly putting pressure on all educators to prove effectiveness for themselves and for the program of which they are a part (Studer, 2004). Traditional counselors were evaluated based on such...
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Vol. 35, No. 1, Spring

Duty to Warn and Protect: Not in Texas
Contrary to the 1976 California Supreme Court decision in the renowned Tarasoff case, the Texas Supreme Court rendered a 1999 opinion (Thapar v. Zezulka) that mental health providers in Texas do not have a duty to warn and protect their clients' known...
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Culture and Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Study among College Students
By measuring interaction among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, and age, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 117 international students from Thailand, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea were assessed with regards...
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Adolescent Heroin Abuse: Implications for the Consulting Professional School Counselor
Heroin use among adolescents has increased significantly over the past decade. This increase poses a considerable danger for adolescents potentially resulting in serious psychological, social, educational, and legal consequences. Professional school...
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The Enneagram: An Innovative Approach
The enneagram (pronounced any-a-gram) is a tool consisting of nine points that depict personality styles. It is a tool that can be integrated into theoretical counseling approaches to better serve the therapeutic relationship and is adaptable to the...
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Vol. 34, No. 1/2, Spring

Editorial Perspective
From the Executive Editor:I must offer my humblest apologies to our readership for publication delays during the previous 18 months. However, conceiving of this "double issue" afforded me the opportunity to return to the established publication schedule....
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International Students in CACREP-Accredited Counseling Programs
This was a descriptive study on the presence of international students in counseling programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Findings show that international students were enrolled in at least...
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Supervisees' Contributions to Stellar Supervision Outcomes
This qualitative inquiry was conducted to acquire insight regarding the limited number of supervisees whose growth exceeds that of other good supervisees. Twelve experienced supervisors described supervisees who had achieved outstanding growth during...
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A Reexamination of Trends in Acute Care Psychiatric Hospitalization for Adolescents: Ethnicity, Payment, and Length of Stay
The purpose of this study was to identify current trends for adolescents in acute care psychiatric hospitalization with respect to ethnicity, insurance coverage, and length of stay. Data were collected on 89 adolescents admitted to acute care psychiatric...
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Does CACREP Accreditation Make A Difference? A Look at NCE Results and Answers
With the establishment of CACREP in 1981 and the creation of the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) in 1982, counselor education gained accreditation standards and a method of measuring educational knowledge. Bobby and Kandor (1992) suggested...
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Counseling Students' Mental Health Status and Attitudes toward Counseling
Existing studies have often expressed concern that impaired counseling students are destined to become impaired counseling professionals and as such are apt to do great harm if the issue of admitting and graduating impaired students is not addressed....
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Perceptions of Free Will, Determinism and Moral Responsibility Reexamined
The authors report results from two studies designed to reexamine Wilks (2004) findings that people accept blame and moral responsibility for their own immoral behaviors, but do not accept special credit and moral responsibility for their moral behaviors....
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Facilitating Effective Committees
Counselors often serve as members of committees at their schools or agencies, and their skills allow them to play a vital role in making committees successful. As committee chairs, counselors can play a direct in role in selecting members and in facilitating...
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African American School Counselors: Their Perceptions of Biracial Individuals
The purpose of this study was to explore African American school counselor's perceptions of biracial individuals. A subset of data, taken from an original sample of 328 school counselors, consisted of 122 African American participants. Results indicated...
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Vol. 33, No. 2, Fall

Children Also Grieve: Talking about Death and Healing
Children also grieve: Talking about death and healingLinda GoldmanPhiladelphia: Jessica Kingsley PublisherDo children grieve? What is their grieving process like? How do we as adults or significant others in children's lives help them with their grieving...
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Counseling Services for Special Education Students
School counselors have been providing services to an increasing number of special education students, especially since the passage of Public Law 94-142 and other laws mandating equitable education opportunities for all students including those with special...
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Supervisees' Contributions to Lousy Supervision Outcomes
This article features the results of a qualitative study designed to identify supervisors' perceptions of supervisees' attitudes, behaviors, and skills that contribute to unsatisfactory supervision processes and outcomes. The participants' contributions...
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Usefulness of the Perceptual Alteration Scale
This study investigated the Perceptual Alteration Scale (PAS) as a measure of dissociation in a college counseling center population by examining its relationship to the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), a well-known measure of dissociation, abuse,...
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Internet Addiction Diagnosis and Assessment: Implications for Counselors
The rapid development and increased availability of the Internet has led some researchers to examine the effects excessive usage has on an individual's social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development. Pathological Internet use has become more...
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Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring

Traditional- and Activity-Based Laboratory Groups: A Quantitative Comparison of Two Teaching Approaches
Counselor educators struggle with finding optimum methods for teaching group counseling concepts to graduate counseling students. Educators routinely combine a didactic component along with a traditional- or discussion-group process. This study compared...
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A Survey of Practicing Psychotherapists
A survey was taken of licensed professional counselors and psychologists in Texas. Their attitudes on managed care, Internet therapy, and their professional therapeutic orientations were addressed. The majority of both types of practitioners had a negative...
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The Effect of an Adlerian Video-Based Parent Education Program on Parent's Perception of Children's Behavior: A Study of African American Parents
To determine the effectiveness of an Adlerian video-based parent education program, 40 African American parents were randomly recruited for a training program, and randomly assigned to either the training or control groups. The training group participated...
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Conceptualizing Identity Development in Members of Marginalized Groups
Counselors-in-training are often overwhelmed with information, including a plethora of identity development models that describe the experiences of various racial and cultural groups. A thorough grounding in the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model...
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Vol. 32, No. 2, Fall

Editorial Perspective
By now you have had an opportunity to savor the new "flavor" of our outstanding journal, now The Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research. Becky Taylor, my predecessor, outlined our purposes in her column in the Summer 2004...
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Treating Personality Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Relational Approach, Efrain Bleiberg
Treating Personality Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Relational Approach, Efrain Bleiberg. New York: Guilford Press. 2004 (paperback edition). 348 pp. ISBN 1-59385-018-2 $25.00.Like most people in the helping professions, I encounter people...
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Supervision of Basic and Advanced Skills in Play Therapy
AbstractEffective play therapy supervision requires teaching, modeling, and encouragement of basic and advanced responsive skills. This article presents a detailed description of non-verbal and verbal basic skills, as well as advanced skills, in play...
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Experiences of Counselor Educators of Color in Academe
AbstractThe authors present results of a qualitative exploration and analysis of the impact of ethnicity, social class, and gender in the lives of 14 counselor educators of color teaching in colleges and universities across the United States. Data analysis...
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Creating Helper Children as Natural Supports
AbstractThe authors propose a program that combines the practices and philosophy of pair counseling, person-centered planning, and accessing natural supports to improve both the self-esteem of students and the personal relationships between children...
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Global Perspectives in Family Therapy: Development, Practice, and Trends
Global Perspectives in Family Therapy: Development, Practice, and Trends. Kit S. Ng (Ed.). New York: Brunner-Routledge. 2003.234 pp. ISBN 0-52021826-4. $39.95Family therapy is more effective when counselors understand the cultural background of families...
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Supervising School Counselors and Interns: Resources for Site Supervisors
AbstractThis article features a review of selected resources related to supervision of school counselors and school counselors-in-training during their internship. These resources are grouped by professional associations, needs of the supervisee, needs...
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Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring

Assistant Professors of Counselor Education: First and Second Year Experiences
AbstractThis article focuses on experiences of counselor education assistant professors during their first two years. Thirty-nine counselor education assistant professors rated their levels of satisfaction, connectedness, and stress at the end of both...
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The Web: A Constructivist Intervention in Counseling
AbstractConstructivist approaches to counseling have been discussed increasingly in the professional counseling literature as successful interventions for clients as they allow clients to understand and attach meaning to their experiences. The Web, designed...
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Editorial Perspective
Over the past year, T have been involved in a study involving photographs, as well as taking a course in photography. The course on photography requires that I send in pictures illustrating my understanding and skill for each unit. In lurii, I receive...
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Childhood Trauma and Play Therapy Intervention for Traumatized Children
AbstractPlay therapy is examined as an intervention for traumatized children. Difficulties in assessing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children according to the existing criteria are described, and the aspects of play therapy that facilitate...
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Perceptions of Moral Responsibility and Self-Attribution: Unique Findings
AbstractPerceptions of self-attribution of causality (personal credit and blame for actual behaviors done by an individual and perceived by that individual to be morally successful behaviors) and actual behaviors done by an individual and perceived by...
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Attachment and Family Systems: Conceptual, Empirical, and Therapeutic Relatedness (2003)
Attachment and Family Systems: Conceptual, Empirical, and Therapeutic Relatedness (2003)New York, NY: Bruimer-Routledge, 273 pagesThis seminal hook, the collaborative work oi'Erdman & Cat'fery, is written in ari easy-to-read format for both clinicians...
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