MACLAS Latin American Essays

MACLAS Latin American Essays is a magazine specializing in Arts topics.

Articles

Vol. 16, March

The Honduran Poverty-Reduction Strategy
In the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, which caused an estimated $3.8 billion in damages to the economy in October 1998 (Honduras 1999:4), (2) Honduras was declared eligible for external debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)...
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Finding an Alliance: Rethinking Argentine-United States Cold War Relations
In Argentina, the end of the Cold War coincided with Carlos Menem's election to the presidency. A charismatic leader, Menem brilliantly integrated disparate and often conflicting strands of the Peronist movement into his politics. He campaigned...
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Rashomon in the Zocalo: Writing the History of Popular Political Culture in Nineteenth Century Mexico
Introduction Those of us who study the political culture of nineenth century Mexico often lament the absence of archival documentation and the elusiveness of that which we know must exist somewhere, but just cannot find ... yet. Further frustration...
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The Fragmented Pysche of Mexico: The Narrative Structure of la Muerte De Artemio Cruz through the Lens of Francisco Gonzales Pineda
Upon reading Carlos Fuentes's novel La muerte de Artemio Cruz (1962) for the first time, many readers find themselves confused, frustrated, and even lost, due to its complex narrative structure. With each chapter divided into three parts (Yo, Tu,...
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Prostibulos Y Subversion En "La Gringa" De Gloria Pampillo
Seleccionar una escritora argentina contemporanea cuya ficcion feminista evidencie originalidad estilistica y relevancia tematica constituye una tarea dificil, pues muchas han demostrado exitosamente gran creatividad en ambos aspectos literarios....
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Mireya Keller, Gustav Mahler, and Eric Neumann: Feminine Archetypes in En El Tren De Los Muertos
For Barbara Ware (1) En el tren de los muertos received Honorable Mention in the Contest Premio Fondo Nacional de las Artes in 1997; its author, Mireya Keller, has won numerous prizes, primarily for her short stories, in Chile and Argentina;...
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El Juan Moreira De Eduardo Gutierrez: Entre El Discurso Hegemonico Y Lo Performativo, Y la Construccion del Imaginario Popular Argentino
Eduardo Gutierrez es recordado y celebrado por los estudiosos de la literatura, en mayor medida, debido a su premir folletin gauchesco el Juan Moreira de 1879. El Moreira es publicado en el matutino La Patria Argentina, y con esta novela abre su...
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The Democtratic Governance Agenda of the Organization of American States
"The peoples of the American have a right to democracy and their governments have an obligation to promote and defend it." These words open the "Inter-American Democratic Charter" which was recently drafted by the Organization of American States...
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March

Managing Editor's Preface
The fifteenth volume in the series of MACLAS: Latin American Essays presents a selection of fifteen papers given at the Twenty-second Annual Conference of the Middle Atlantic Council of Latin American Studies held at American and Howard Universities...
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Social Movements and Hybrid Cultural Formations: Tepoztlan's "No Al Golf"
What does it mean when a "traditional" Mexican campesino declares himself to be an "environmentalist?" How do we explain a women's Bible study group taking up the mantle of defenders of "human rights?" How do these new titles and identifications reflect...
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Creating Citizens: The Birth and Growth of the Cuban Internal Pro-Democracy Movement
In November 1999 Cuba hosted the 10th Ibero-American Summit, in which approximately 20 Latin American Presidents and Heads of State joined together to discuss the present and future of Ibero-American relations. At the time, the meeting appeared as...
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Words, Sounds, and Power in Jamaican Rastafari
Rastafari is a religious movement that grew out of Jamaica during the 1930s. The Rastafarian movement "has been described [by social scientists] as a `political cult,' a `messianic movement,' a `politico-religious cult' among other labels. But as the...
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Yoruban Religious Survival in Brazilian Candomble
Candomble is a possession religion widely practiced in Brazil today. This Afro-Brazilian religion is syncretic, a mingling of the pantheon, practices, and beliefs brought to the New World by Yoruban slaves and freedmen with the Catholicism of the dominant...
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Healing the Rupture: A Jungian Perspective in African Religion/mythology
In a letter dated March 25, 1998 from the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue, Vatican City, to the Presidents of the Episcopal Conferences of Africa and of Madagascar, the pastoral began by saying that, "[t]he secretariat for Non-Christians...
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Latin America's 1980's and Asia's 1990's Debt Crisis: A Comparison
I Latin America's Foreign Debt crisis of the 1980s has had profound repercussions that resulted in fundamental changes in the process of Economic Development and the economic structure of several Latin American countries. Asia's Foreign Debt crisis...
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Nuclear Politics in Cold War Argentina
The history of the Argentine nuclear sector is wonderfully contradictory--"wonderfully" because despite its problems and failures, it emerged as Argentina's most important area of technological advancement in the Cold War period. Led through much of...
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Nacion, Colonialismo Y Modernidad En la Declaracion De Independencia del Peru (1821)
Al repasar el proceso de autonomizacion de cabildos y formacion de Juntas que, en el mundo hispano y en torno a 1810, siguio a la ocupacion francesa de la peninsula iberica de 1808, sabemos que la Audiencia de Lima no formo parte de dicho proceso....
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Hija De Las Americas: Latin American Themes in A Daughter's Geography and Liliane
Separated by more than a decade, the focus of A Daughter's Geography (1983) and Liliane: Resurrection of the Daughter (1994), both by Notozake Shange, couldn't be more different, despite the commonality of the nature of the parent-child relationship...
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Rescatando Las Poetas Hondurenas: Locura Y Lucidez En Juana Pavon, Sara Salazar Melendez, Aida Ondina Sabonge Gutierrez Y Maria Eugenia Ramos
Me limito a reflexionar sobre la fuerza del sentido de la palabra poetica siempre que esta llega a expresarseme. (Gadamer, 70) I. INTRODUCCION En ninguna otra literatura es tan obvio el olvido, pernicioso o involuntario, de las mujeres poetas...
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From Guayaquil to Quito: Three Nineteenth-Century Travel Narratives
Countless nineteenth-century international travelers climbed the hazardous Inca trail that led from the coastal city of Guayaquil up into the Andean highlands and then on to Ecuador's capital city of Quito. Scientific exploration, mountain climbing,...
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Concepto Y Metafora En Un Poema De Jose Emilio Pacheco
I En 1976, en un articulo titulado "Jose Emilio Pacheco: la poesia como Ready-Made" (1), Jose Miguel Oviedo senalo varios aspectos que empezaban a surgir o a marcarse a partir del poemario No me preguntes como pasa el tiempo (Mexico: Era, 1969)....
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Literary Excursion into the Discomfort Zone: A Study of the Adaptation from Textual to Visual Representation in Gambaro's El Desatino
Introduction Griselda Gambaro's fame as a brilliant Argentine dramatist overshadows her work as a skilled novelist. It is not well known that a portion of her acclaimed works are adaptations for the stage from narratives written earlier. For example,...
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Las Dos Venecias: De Puerto Rico a Italia
Gotica caverna voluptuosa, en la noche emite vagidos guturales. Ataud luctuoso flotando a la deriva al ritmo de lugubres membranas. Rosario Ferre, "Venecia goyesca", Las dos Venecias. [T]he basilica-crypt monolith forms two hemispheres...
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Teaching Latin American Studies with Blackboard CourseInfo Web Software
I. Introduction This article describes how a Web-based course authoring software package (Blackboard CourseInfo) was used in the teaching of a survey course in Latin American studies. The changing nature of the educational technology environment...
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April

Managing Editor's Preface
The fourteenth volume in the series of MACLAS: Latin American Essays presents a selection of eleven papers given at the Twenty-first Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic Council of Latin American Studies held at St. John Fisher College in Rochester,...
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Jacobo Timerman's Preso Sin Nombre, Celda Sin Numero and the Reconstructing "I". (1)
?Alguien de ustedes miro alguna vez en los ojos a una persona, en el fondo de una celda, que sabe que va a morir aunque nadie se lo dijo? ... Tengo muchas de esas miradas clavadas en mi. (160) Jacobo Timerman Jacobo Timerman's Preso sin hombre,...
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Literatura, Testimonio, Cine Y Derechos Humanos En Los Tiempos del Neoliberalismo Global
The only factor against the extradition of Senator Pinochet which is potentially decisive at this stage is the state of his health, and in particular his mental fitness to stand a trial. Jack Straw, Home Secretary, England, March 2, 2000 La novela...
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La Mujer En la Reconstruccion De la Sociedad Nicaraguense Segun G. Belli En Waslala
Imaginar la realidad sigue siendo tan importante como construirla. Esta reciente novela de la escritora nicaraguense Gioconda Belli puede ser analizada como una alegoria de la situacion socio-economica de su pais. La trama transcurre en un espacio...
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Accounts from Guatemala: Critical Reception of the Works of Rigoberta Menchu
First of all, there are some basic, rather well-known details of this initial account. The text I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala was published in English by Verso in 1984. It had appeared a year earlier in Spanish as Me llamo Rigoberta...
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Alemania Y Borges
Existen varios trabajos que tratan de la recepcion de Jorge Luis Borges en Alemania, por ejemplo las investigaciones de Ernst E. Behle (1) y de Yolanda J. Broyles (2). Por lo tanto quisiera hablar en esta ocasion de "Alemania en Borges," es decir,...
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Latin America's Civil Wars: Conflict Resolution and Institutional Change
War is the formative experience for most important nations and many governing institutions. After doing their worst, humans frequently find in the ashes they have produced reasons to think differently about themselves and their neighbors. (1) Latin...
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Democracia, Elecciones Y Derechos Humanos
El definir la democracia como el gobierno del pueblo, por el pueblo y para el pueblo no reflejaria en toda su dimension lo que es la democracia moderna. (1) Porque si bien la democracia se manifiesta en la seleccion de los dirigentes gubernamentales...
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Regional Integration in Mercosur and Possible Future Military Developments in the Southern Cone
Foreword This presentation is based on the author's research in the Southern Cone, conducted in the first half of 1999. It is a part of a larger work on Mercosur, in which the military aspect is but one of the issues under consideration. The part...
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Cultural Continuity and Change in Gremio Fiestas in Yucatan
Festivals are intrinsically paradoxical and multidimensional emphasizing contradictory functions as the specific cultural moment dictates. Festival traditions allow for historical continuity while incorporating societal change. They are a means of...
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Fleeing the Nightmare: French Emigres in Cuba and Louisiana during the Haitian Revolution, 1791-1810
The reality of slave insurrection was a constant fear in slaveholding societies, but a new urgency materialized during the latter half of the eighteenth century. This new urgency was a result of both the increased social tensions borne by slaveholding...
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Multiples Demandas: Hogar, Trabajo Y Auto-Realizacion Entre Mujeres Profesionales De Clase Media En Buenos Aires
Introduccion: El objetivo de esta ponencia es analizar las experiencias laborales y familiares de un conjunto de mujeres de clase media profesional, su interpretacion acerca de esas experiencias y como ellas perciben y valoran los logros y sin sabores...
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The IHM's Response to Educational, Social and Economic Challenges of Human Rights in Peru and Chile: A Viable Option for the People of Latin America
Social, economic and political conditions, as they appeared in Peru and Chile, challenged the apostolate of education of the Congregation of the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. (1) They also defied the extension of this apostolate...
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March

The Central American Peace Process: The Role of International Organizations
The balance sheet on the role of the United Nations (UN) and the Organization of American States (OAS) in the Central American peace process is a positive one. It would be hard to imagine the relative peace Central America has come to experience without...
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First Baptist Church of Vila Da Penha: An Example of the Phenomenal Growth of Protestants in Brazil in Recent Years
In Brazil, as in all of Latin America, the phenomenal growth of evangelical Protestant religious groups in recent years challenges the perception of the country as a Roman Catholic state. In the 1980s a Brazilian Bishop observed that Latin America...
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Divine Inspiration? an Examination of the Impact of Hallucinogens on the Production of Imagery among Some South American Populations
Studies of shamanism in a variety of world cultures invariably have one fundamental connection: the shamans' use of altered states of consciousness when healing or contacting the realm of the supernatural. Shamans--and indeed all humans--have a variety...
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State Politics, Market Economy, and Community Rights and Duties in Rural Paraguay(1)
State Politics, Market Economy, and Community Rights and Duties in Rural Paraguay In the national Paraguayan land registry, Nu Pyajhu Guazu, Caazapa appears to be a community of "middle" peasants (titles are listed for landholdings from 20 to 50...
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Eat, Drink, and Be Merry: Jose Agustin Arrieta's Images of Women, Food, and Beverage
There is a custom among the Chatino Indians of Juquila, in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca, that at birth, newborn boys are given a machete by their fathers, and girls receive a metate and malacate from their mothers.(1) This tradition not only...
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Fedina En El Mundo Surrealista De "El Senor Presidente" De Miguel Angel Asturias
Introduccion Las tiranias latinoamericanas siempre dominadas por la corrupcion y la represion de los derechos humanos han servido de trasfondo a muchas obras de muchos autores. El senor Presidente, de Miguel Angel Asturias, es una de estas piezas...
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I, the Supreme: POLITICALLY RELATED THEMES IN THE NOVEL
Introduction I, The Supreme is a novel that intrigues the reader on many levels.(1) This paper concentrates on the novel's treatment of both independence era and mid-twentieth century politics, and on the author's approach to political analysis...
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"Lucha Hasta El Alba": Ur-Text for Yo, El Supremo by Augusto Roa Bastos
Creation tales, whether Biblical, mythical, or historical, hold a peculiar fascination. Origins, foundations--what was it like in the beginning? In Latin America, historical and literary creation stories have a consistently oedipal flavor. They are...
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National Family Policy Development in Panama and the Us
The purpose of this study was to determine which factors account for the variation of national family policies within two countries in this hemisphere, Panama and the United States. The United States was selected for two major reasons. It is in the...
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Palma Guillen: Mexico's First Female Ambassador and the International Image of Mexico's Post-Revolutionary Gender Policy
In 1935, the Mexican government of Lazaro Cardenas appointed Palma Guillen as Mexico's first female diplomat at the rank of Ambassador. Scholars of the women's movement in Mexico often point to this appointment as both a significant moment in the history...
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"Common Man" Meets Local Women: Global Visions and the Foundations of National Fertility Regulation in Chile
In the 1960s Chilean women and men had, for the first time, the opportunity to watch educational films like Family Planning/Planificacion Familiar, a Walt Disney production made available in English and Spanish for use in various parts of Latin America.(1)...
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Building Democracy in Latin America
John Peeler. Building Democracy in Latin America. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998. Pp. xv + 240. From a worldwide perspective, democracy has been a popular theme for scholarly research since the end of the Cold War. As John Peeler points...
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March

The Process of Policy Reform in Honduras, 1990-1997(*)
(*) This paper is based on public information collected by the author while conducting research on Honduras over the last two years, first as an employee of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and, since his retirement from USAID...
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United States Assistance to the Bolivian Military 1958-1964
I On November 4, 1964, a military junta led by General Rene Barrientos overthrew Bolivian President Victor Paz Estenssoro, ending the 12 year governance of the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR). The coup surprised many foreign observers....
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Destination Brazil: Immigration in Works of Nelida Pinon and Karen Tei Yamashita
In his study of nationalism, Konstantin Symmons-Symonolewicz describes the process of national awakening as a phase of nationalism as a social movement in which a new identity must be defined in terms of the country's cultural heritage and in which...
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Rolando Hinojosa-Smith's Sense of Place: Sociolinguistic Aspects
Introduction In the short story "The Kid from the Alamo" by Beatriz de la Garza the narrator remembers his grade school years in Poggendorf (formerly Los Robles) in Southeast Texas. In particular, he focuses on Texan history, because even at that...
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Gladys M. Ilarregui and the Post-Modern Poetics of Transparency
Born in Argentina in 1958, Gladys M. Ilarregui emigrated with her husband to the United States in 1983. She was educated both in Argentina where she studied German and primary education and in the United States where she received her M.A. from George...
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La Narracion En Cartucho. Relatos De la Lucha En El Norte (Nellie Campobello)
Nellie Campobello es la unica escritora de la primera etapa de la novela de la Revolucion Mexicana. En una sociedad tan tradicional como la mexicana, ??cual seria la experiencia de una mujer en esta Revolucion? Es muy importante tener en cuenta su...
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Building Hegemony: Peron, Gramsci and Political Strategy in the Age of the Masses
The signs and symbols of authority in Peronism were deeply ambiguous from the beginning. October 17, 1945, both in myth and historiography, presents a dual and contradictory notion of authority. On the one hand, the great rally of October 17 represents...
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The Case of the Bombing of the Jewish Headquarters in Buenos Aires (Amia): A Structural Approach(1)
"Argentina cannot afford a WATERGATE because in this country the cement is still wet and fragile (fresco) and therefore it might risk the integrity of its institutions." Mariano Grondona, T. V. political anchorman (quoted from Verbitsky, 1997: 69....
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Shifts in Feminism and Women's Rights in Latin America: 1960-1990
Males have dominated societal institutions including the family in nearly all cultures throughout human history. For most of the world, women have a double work role with little economic reward. This gender stratification has both micro and macro effects...
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Vol. 11, April

Medical Conflicts: A Comparison of the Folk and Biomedical Models of Adult-Onset Diabetes in Jamaica
Introduction Improvement in the standard of living frequently results in changes in the incidence of diseases in a country. In particular, chronic diseases begin to surpass the incidence of infectious diseases. An example of this is found In Jamaica....
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Acculturation of Explanatory Models: Jamaican Blood Terms and Concepts
Introduction(1) Most Jamaicans operate within a dual etiological system of illness and treatment, the biomedical and the folk medical. In the folk tradition, health is thought to be associated with a balance of opposite binary qualities of the blood,...
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Agricultural Exports: The Mexican Experience
Since the mid-1980s, Mexican governments have implemented policies to, among other things, increase production of tradable goods, liberalize trade, and advance macroeconomic stability. Moving away from import substitution industrialization and into...
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Cuba's Organized Labor, from Depression to Cold War
This essay requires neither the New Cultural History nor Subaltern Studies to ferret out its subject's means of participation. The success of Cuban organized labor during the 1940s-50s was so notable that its members may not be classified as "subalterns,"...
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The Cuban Military, 1952-1958: A New Perspective
A central goal of U. S. policy under the administration of Dwight Eisenhower was to foster and strengthen anticommunist regimes in Latin America. The implication of the President's plan was a new defense arrangement tying selected Latin American countries...
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Environmental Degeneration and Response: Wildlife Destruction in the Americas and Pan American Preservation, 1900-1945
In 1940, representatives of the American republics reached agreement on a draft convention for nature protection and wildlife preservation. Questions of environment degradation, landscape, and nature had arisen in several contexts within the Pan American...
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El Doble Filo De la Ironia En la Poesia De Luis Carlos Lopez (1874-1950)
"El ave canta aunque la rama cruja." Salvador Diaz Miron Luis Carlos Lopez escribe en Colombia a fines del siglo pasado y a principios de este e invoca una historia mas o menos familiar a todos los latinoamericanos. Sirviendose de modos de expresion...
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??Pequena Burguesa, Artista, Feminista?: Edith En "Domingo" De Rosario Castellanos
En "Domingo," el segundo cuento de la coleccion Album de familia, Rosario Castellanos diseca la vida bohemia de la Ciudad de Mexico. Despues de una conversacion intima en que Edith y su marido Carlos discuten amistosamente la posible atraccion amorosa...
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"Entierro En El Este": Orientalismo En la Poesia De Neruda
En este trabajo analizo un poema de Pablo Neruda, "Entierro en el Este," incluido en la primera Residencia en la Tierra (1925-35), para proponer que este manifiesta caractetisticas unisonas con el ofientalismo europeo definido y estudiado por Edward...
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Putting Your Course Materials on a CD-Rom Disk
Introduction This paper presents information on a multimedia presentation (text, drawings, photographs, video, sound, interactive computer programs) dealing with the extreme Southern Cone of Latin America: the so-called "South American Quadrant"...
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March

Monetary Stabilization in Brazil: Evidence from Pharmaceutical Trade for the Impact of the Plano Real
The presence of hyperinflation in Brazil for most of the period from 1980 through 1993 had many effects on the Brazilian economy.(2) These effects included a perversive process of inflationary taxation, changes in income distribution, and alterations...
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Displaying Brazil: National Expositions and the Forging of a "Modern" Nation, 1861-1922
In 1861, Brazil inaugurated its first national exposition, in the capital city of Rio de Janeiro. At the inauguration, held on the birthday of Emperor Dom Pedro II, a military band played a hymn entitled "Marcha da Industria" (March of Industry), composed...
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The San Juan Route: The Nicaragua Canal Company 1887-93
The vision of a waterway through the Central American isthmus was entertained by monarchs and entrepreneurs from as early as the sixteenth century. Engineers and visionaries alike considered Panama and Nicaragua the prime locations. Panama, of course,...
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Los Tontos De la Concepcion: Ramon J. Sender's Reassessment of Spain's Colonial Past
Padre Francisco Tomas Hermenegildo Garces, born in Morata del Conde in Aragon, Spain, in 1738, began his missionary work in New Spain at the age of twenty-five, inspired by the examples of Fray Junipero Serra in California and Father Eusebio Kino in...
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Fanny Buitrago Y la Parodia De la Construccion Social De la Realidad Femenina Latinoamericana
En la era postmodernista de hoy con su afirmacion de las verdades individuales, la proclamacion de las igualdades en las diferencias de sexos, no se puede afirmar que la generalidad de las mujeres latinoamericanas, son las hacedoras de sus propios...
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The Politics of Economic Development Theory in Latin America
Introduction By the middle of the 1990s national economic policy in Latin America was dominated by neoliberal (neoclassical) economic ideas.(1) This situation represented the third major change in economic thinking in the twentieth century. At...
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The Unusual Orphaning of Ordinary Argentines: Populist Liberalism and the Peronist Party, 1989-1995(*)
Introduction: Peronism, Political Parties, and Democracy While historical Peronism was never associated with a strong political party, there is a general consensus that the Peronist Justicialist Party (PJ) began to take on some of the characteristics...
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Peruvian Democracy in the 1990's
Although Peru held presidential and congressional elections in April of 1995, and municipal elections in November of 1995, the status of democracy in Peru today leaves much to be desired. Behind the facade of a formal multi-party democracy with a relatively...
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The "New" Nicaraguan Military: Sandinista to the "Corps"
Introduction The defeat of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) on February 25, 1990, provided Nicaragua with a rare opportunity to negotiate fundamental changes in civil-military relations. As a "new democracy," the country enjoyed,...
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Retreat to the Sacristy or Champion of the (Still) Voiceless: The Chilean Catholic Church and Democratic Consolidation
In the past decade, we have seen a number of Latin American countries successfully make the transition to democratic institutions and procedures. Scholarly attention now has turned toward questions regarding the "deepening," or consolidation, of democratic...
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