Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 111, No. 4, April

A Diet Rich in Fish: High-End Consumers Face More Mercury Risks. (Science Selections)
Fancy fish aficionados, take note: if your forays into piscatorial paradise are frequent, you could be ingesting dangerously high amounts of mercury. In this month's issue, Jane Hightower and Dan Moore of the California Pacific Medical Center in San...
Read preview Overview
Alteration of Pulmonary Immunity to Listeria Monocytogenes by Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs). II. Effects of DEPs on T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Rats. (Research)
Previously, we showed that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) suppressed pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) and inhibited the phagocytosis of alveolar macrophages and their response to Listeria in the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1[beta],...
Read preview Overview
Altered Profiles of Spontaneous Novelty Seeking, Impulsive Behavior, and Response to D-Amphetamine in Rats Perinatally Exposed to Bisphenol A. (Research)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen with potentially averse effects on public health. We studied the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to BPA on later behavior in adult rats of both sexes. BPA or vehicle was administered orally to...
Read preview Overview
American Boating Association Clean Boating and Environmental Stewardship. (Ehpnet)
More and more people in the United States are using water for a variety of recreational purposes. The 1997 National Survey on Recreation and the Environment found that from 1983 to 1995 the number of boaters increased 25% and the number of people swimming...
Read preview Overview
An Occupational Reproductive Research Agenda for the Third Millennium. (Workgroup Report)
There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or...
Read preview Overview
Antiandrogenic Activity and Metabolism of the Organophosphorus Pesticide Fenthion and Related Compounds. (Research)
We investigated the endocrine-disrupting actions of the organophosphorus pesticide fenthion and related compounds and the influence of metabolic transformation on the activities of these compounds. Fenthion acted as an antagonist of the androgenic...
Read preview Overview
A Practice Approach for Identifying Previously Unsuspected Environmental Contributors to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Complex Diseases. (Commentary)
Existing medical records and health surveys provide insights into potential environmental contributors to complex chronic diseases. Those recognizable risks (e.g., workplace exposures and behaviors including smoking) do not, however, exhaust the domain...
Read preview Overview
Arsenic-Induced Dysfunction in Relaxation of Blood Vessels. (Research)
Several epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to arsenic is strongly correlated with the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. To determine whether arsenic affects vasomotor tone in blood vessels, we investigated...
Read preview Overview
Assessing Human Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contamination for Epidemiologic Studies: Lessons from Patterns of Congener Concentrations in Canadians in 1992. (Research)
Humans are always exposed to mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), so assessment of their health effects is complicated. Because the original sources are relatively standard mixtures that change in predictable ways while traversing the environment,...
Read preview Overview
Asthma Symptoms in Hispanic Children and Daily Ambient Exposures to Toxic and Criteria Air Pollutants. (Children's Health)
Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We...
Read preview Overview
Atrazine-Induced Hermaphroditism at 0.1 Ppb in American Leopard Frogs (Rana Pipiens): Laboratory and Field Evidence. (Research)
Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States and probably the world. Atrazine contamination is widespread and can be present in excess of 1.0 ppb even in precipitation and in areas where it is not used. In the current study, we...
Read preview Overview
Bone Resorption Is Affected by Follicular Phase Length in Female Rotating Shift Workers. (Environmental Medicine)
Stressors as subtle as night work or shift work can lead to irregular menstrual cycles, and changes in reproductive hormone profiles can adversely affect bone health. This study was conducted to determine if stresses associated with the disruption...
Read preview Overview
Bringing Science to Justices. (NIEHS News)
California Court of Appeals justice Thomas E. Hollenhorst jokes that he and many other judges chose law as a career to escape science and math. "I think that for the typical judge, there was a Y in the road when they started college about whether they...
Read preview Overview
Calendar. (Announcements)
2003 May 2-9 May, Fri-Fri. American Occupational Health Conference. Atlanta, Georgia. Information: SLACK Incorporated, 6900 Grove Road, Thorofare, NJ 08086 USA, 856-848-1000, fax: 856-848-3522, e-mail: bkehler@slackinc.com 5-6 May, Mon-Tue....
Read preview Overview
Cancer and Developmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors. (Research)
Developing organisms have increased susceptibility to cancer if they are exposed to environmental toxicants during rapid growth and differentiation. Human studies have demonstrated clear increases in cancer after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation,...
Read preview Overview
Cancer Risks in Naval Divers with Multiple Exposures to Carcinogens. (Environmental Medicine)
We investigated risks for cancer and the case for a cause--effect relationship in five successive cohorts of naval commando divers (n = 682) with prolonged underwater exposures (skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airways) to many toxic compounds in...
Read preview Overview
Childhood Cancer Incidence Rates and Hazardous Air Pollutants in California: An Exploratory Analysis. (Children's Health)
Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are compounds shown to cause cancer or other adverse health effects. We analyzed population-based childhood cancer incidence rates in California (USA) from 1988 to 1994, by HAP exposure scores, for all California census...
Read preview Overview
Childhood Leukemia: Bad Air Linked to Increased Risk. (Science Selections)
Researchers in the Environmental Health Investigation Branch of the California Department of Health Services have discovered a possible association between exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and the incidence of childhood leukemia [EHP 111:663-668]....
Read preview Overview
Coming Together or Children. (NIEHS News)
When it comes to environmental exposures and health, children are not just small adults. They also aren't "big rats," quipped Daniel Swartz, executive director of the Children's Environmental Health Network, a national organization devoted to protecting...
Read preview Overview
Comment on "Sexual Maturation in Relation to Polychlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Sharpe and Skakkebaek's Hypothesis Revisited". (Correspondence)
The paper of Den Hond et al. (2002) is very interesting, mainly because the reported work demonstrates the potential of biomarkers in environmental health programs. However, we argue with the authors' conclusion that their findings suggest that,...
Read preview Overview
Consensus Workshop on Methods to Evaluate Developmental Immunotoxicity. (Meeting Report)
A workshop cosponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was convened in Washington, DC, on 17-18 October 2001 with the goal of developing a consensus document on...
Read preview Overview
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice
Edited by A. Alonso Aguirre, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House, and Mary C. Pearl. New York:Oxford University Press, 2002. 407 pp. ISBN: 0-19-515093-7, 35.00 [pounds sterling] cloth. Over the past century, humanity has had a devastating...
Read preview Overview
Declaring Chemicals "Not Carcinogenic to Humans" Requires Validation, Not Speculation. (Correspondence)
Regulatory agencies should provide detailed guidelines on how to use mechanistic and epidemiologic data to dismiss positive cancer evidence obtained from studies in experimental animals. Roberts and Ashby (2002) bemoaned that the U.S. Environmental...
Read preview Overview
Disruption of Androgen Regulation in the Prostate by the Environmental Contaminant Hexachlorobenzene. (Research)
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has the potential to interfere with steroid hormone regulation. The prostate requires precise control by androgens to regulate its growth and function. To determine if HCB impacts...
Read preview Overview
Division of Extramural Research and Training Third Annual Scientific Retreat. (NIEHS Extramural Update)
The Division of Extramural Research and Training third annual scientific retreat was held in Wilmington, North Carolina, on 21-22 November 2002. The purpose of the retreat was to explore opportunities in new and existing topics related to the theme...
Read preview Overview
DNA Damage Associated with Ultrastructural Alterations in Rat Myocardium after Loud Noise Exposure. (Research)
Noise exposure causes changes at different levels in human organs, particularly the cardiovascular system, where it is responsible for increasing heart rate, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. In this study, we evaluated the effect...
Read preview Overview
Ecologic Analysis of Some Immune-Related Disorders, Including Type 1 Diabetes, in Australia: Latitude, Regional Ultraviolet Radiation, and Disease Prevalence. (Research)
The apparent immune-suppressive effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has suggested that this environmental exposure may influence the development of immune-related disorders. Self-reported prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis...
Read preview Overview
Effects of a Diphenyl Ether-Type Herbicide, Chlornitrofen, and Its Amino Derivative on Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Activities. (Research)
Chlornitrofen (CNP) was widely used in large quantities as a herbicide in rice paddy fields in Japan during 1965-1994. Recently, there has been concern that chemicals in the environment may disrupt the endocrine function of wildlife and humans, but...
Read preview Overview
Effects of Chinese Domestic Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Gonadal Differentiation in Xenopus Laevis. (Research)
To determine whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) influence gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis, tadpoles were exposed to two Chinese domestic PCBs (PC[B.sub.3] and PC[B.sub.5]) from Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 46/47 to complete metamorphosis....
Read preview Overview
Effects of Submicrometer Particle Compositions on Cytokine Production and Lipid Peroxidation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. (Research)
To identify the size and components related to toxicity of ambient particles, we used a trichotomous impactor to collect 17 sets of particles in three size ranges--submicrometer (diameters < 1 [micro]m; P[M.sub.1.0]), fine (diameters between 1 and...
Read preview Overview
Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Carcinogenic Potencies from Cooking Sources to the Urban Atmosphere. (Research)
Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. However, this does not consider the contribution of cooking sources of PAHs. This study set out, first, to assess the characteristics...
Read preview Overview
Environmental Estrogens Alter Early Development in Xenopus Laevis. (Research)
A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula...
Read preview Overview
EPA: Funding and Pollution Problems Persist. (Water Quality)
The provision of wastewater treatment and clean drinking water may experience a funding gap of more than $500 billion between projected needs and current spending levels during the next two decades. Despite this crisis, nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP)...
Read preview Overview
Estrogens from Sewage in Coastal Marine Environments. (Research)
Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting...
Read preview Overview
Estrogens in Coastal Waters: The Sewage Source. (Science Selections)
Although estrogens are essential for successful reproduction in animals, various estrogen metabolites and by-products in treated sewage could have deleterious effects on marine organisms if ingested or absorbed. In this issue, Shannon Atkinson, now...
Read preview Overview
Evaluation of Mercury in Urine as an Indicator of Exposure to Low Levels of Mercury Vapor. (Environmental Medicine)
We conducted a pooled analysis to investigate the relationship between exposure to elemental mercury in air and resulting urinary mercury levels, specifically at lower air levels relevant for environmental exposures and public health goals (i.e., <...
Read preview Overview
Evaluation of Recreational Health Risk in Coastal Waters Based on Enterococcus Densities and Bathing Patterns. (Environmental Medicine)
We constructed a simulation model to compute the incidences of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) in recreational bathers at two intermittently contaminated beaches of Orange County, California. Assumptions regarding spatial and temporal...
Read preview Overview
Exposure to 4-Tert-Octylphenol Accelerates Sexual Differentiation and Disrupts Expression of Steroidogenic Factor 1 in Developing Bullfrogs. (Research)
Sex-specific gonadal steroidogenesis during development is critical to differentiation of the sexually dimorphic phenotype and reproductive function of adult organisms. Environmental contaminants may affect the process of sexual differentiation through...
Read preview Overview
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards. (Announcements)
Epidemiologic Research on Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter and Other Air Pollutants The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as part of its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program, is seeking applications...
Read preview Overview
Fetal Chlorpyrifos Exposure: Adverse Effects on Brain Cell Development and Cholinergic Biomarkers Emerge Postnatally and Continue into Adolescence and Adulthood. (Research)
Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated...
Read preview Overview
Fuel Damage from Flooding: Finding a Fix. (Innovations)
Environmental scientist monitor fuel oil contamination of water and soil, but indoor exposure has only recently come under investigation as a possible human health threat. Fuel oil is a complex mixture containing hundreds of hydrocarbon compounds such...
Read preview Overview
Geographic Differences in Semen Quality of Fertile U.S. Males. (Research)
Although geographic variation in semen quality has been reported, this is the first study in the United States to compare semen quality among study centers using standardized methods and strict quality control. We evaluated semen specimens from partners...
Read preview Overview
Hair Analysis: Exploring the State of the Science. (Meeting Report)
On 12-13 June 2001, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) convened a seven-member panel in Atlanta, Georgia, to review and discuss the current state of the science related to hair analysis, specifically its use in assessing environmental...
Read preview Overview
Hot Nights in the City. (Climate Change)
U.S. cities average 10 more hot summer nights--classified as above 70[degrees]F in the East, South, and Midwest, and above 80[degrees]F in the Southwest--than they did 40 years ago, climate researchers have found. While long-time city dwellers may...
Read preview Overview
Inequalities in Health: The Value of Sex-Related Indicators. (Research)
My laboratory has previously shown that the sex differences in tumor incidence in Europe can be related to the female social condition and that the pattern of this relationship varies according to the different historical contexts. In this article,...
Read preview Overview
Inhalation of Concentrated Ambient Air Particles Exacerbates Myocardial Ischemia in Conscious Dogs. (Research)
Short-term increases in ambient air pollution have been associated with an increased incidence of acute cardiac events. We assessed the effect of inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on myocardial ischemia in a canine model...
Read preview Overview
Interaction of Organophosphate Pesticides and Related Compounds with the Androgen Receptor. (Research)
Identification of several environmental chemicals capable of binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and interfering with its normal function has heightened concern about adverse effects across a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. We previously...
Read preview Overview
Is Sewage Destroying Coral? (Marine Science)
About 38% of the coral reefs in the Florida Keys have died in the past five years, according to marine ecologists Kathryn Patterson and James W. Porter of the University of Georgia, Athens, and their colleagues. Some experts have blamed global warming...
Read preview Overview
Marine Pollution: The Future Challenge Is to Link Human and Wildlife Studies. (Guest Editorial)
The rapid population growth and enormous urban and coastal development in many of the world's coastal regions have caused considerable concern that anthropogenic pollution may reduce biodiversity and productivity of marine ecosystems, resulting in...
Read preview Overview
Mercury Levels in High-End Consumers of Fish. (Environmental Medicine)
Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 [micro]g/L or the hair level...
Read preview Overview
Messenger from the White House Council on Environmental Quality. (Spheres of Influence)
During the last several decades, the environmental priorities of the various administrations occupying the White House have varied. But the statuatory basis underlying the White House's role in environmental policy has not. By law, the White House...
Read preview Overview
Methyl Mercury and Inorganic Mercury in Swedish Pregnant Women and in Cord Blood: Influence of Fish Consumption. (Environmental Medicine)
We studied exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in Swedish pregnant women (total mercury [T-Hg] in hair) and their fetuses (MeHg in cord blood) in relation to fish intake. The women were recruited at antenatal care clinics in late pregnancy to participate...
Read preview Overview
Ocean Centers to Dive into the Mysteries of the Deep. (Focus)
Hoping to unlock the veritable treasure chest of medicinal potential awaiting discovery in the depths of the world's oceans, the NIEHS and the National Science Foundation announced on 21 November 2002 a $6 million grant program that will establish...
Read preview Overview
Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide, and Daily Mortality in Chongqing, China. (Research)
In 1995, daily mortality in a district of Chongqing, China, was analyzed from January through December for associations with daily ambient sulfur dioxide and fine particles (airborne particles with diameters [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m; P[M.sub.2.5])....
Read preview Overview
Phosphorylation of P53 Protein in A549 Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells Exposed to Asbestos Fibers. (Research)
We examined effects of asbestos exposure on the phosphorylation of p53 protein in human pulmonary epithelial type II cells (A549), which express wild-type p53. In cells exposed to two different types of asbestos, chrysotile (~1-6% iron content) and...
Read preview Overview
Plastic Bags-Prolific Problems. (Recycling)
It's taxed in Ireland and banned in Bangladesh--the convenient, ubiquitous plastic shopping bag. Because of litter problems, the Irish government last year began charging shoppers a 0.15 [euro] tax on every bag used. And after drainage clogs caused...
Read preview Overview
Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Reproductive Hormones in Female Polar Bears at Svalbard. (Research)
High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive...
Read preview Overview
Presence of Asthma Risk Factors and Environmental Exposures Related to Upper Respiratory Infection-Triggered Wheezing in Middle School-Age Children. (Children's Health)
Viral respiratory infections and exposure to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between...
Read preview Overview
Relationship of Blood and Bone Lead to Menopause and Bone Mineral Density among Middle-Age Women in Mexico City. (Environmental Medicine)
To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in...
Read preview Overview
Serum Levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in Relation to Markers of Reproductive Function in Young Males from the General Swedish Population. (Research)
A time-related deterioration in male reproductive function caused by exposure to endocrine disrupters, including persistent organochlorines (POCs), has been hypothesized. In animal studies, POCs were found to have adverse effects on male reproductive...
Read preview Overview
"Sexual Maturation in Relation to Polychlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...": Den Hond et Al.'s Response. (Correspondence)
The Flemish Government commissioned the Environment and Health Study after a competitive call for research proposals in 1998 (Onderzoek Milieu en Gezondheid 1998). From the outset, this research project included two distinct population-based surveys,...
Read preview Overview
The Biocide Tributyltin Reduces the Accumulation of Testosterone as Fatty Acid Esters in the Mud Snail (Ilyanassa Obsoleta). (Research)
Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure in the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in...
Read preview Overview
The Environmental Pain of Pleasure Boating. (Focus)
It's front-pa e news when an oil tanker breaks apart, blackening the ocean, killing wildlife, and staining coastlines. But more, albeit less spectacular, damage to the environment--a "death from a thousands cuts"--may come from a much smaller source:...
Read preview Overview
The National Children's Study of Environmental Effects on Child Health and Development. (Commentary)
The National Children's Study Interagency Coordinating Committee Members of the National Children's Study Interagency Coordinating Committee were Amy M. Branum, Infant and Child Health Studies Branch, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers...
Read preview Overview
The Role of Transgenic Mouse Models in Carcinogen Identification. (Research)
In this article, we examine existing data on the use of transgenic mouse models for identification of human carcinogens. We focus on the three most extensively studied of these mice, Trp53+/-, Tg/AC, and RasH2, and compare their performance with the...
Read preview Overview
The Upper Airway Response to Pollen Is Enhanced by Exposure to Combustion Particulates: A Pilot Human Experimental Challenge Study. (Research)
Although human experimental studies have shown that gaseous pollutants enhance the inflammatory response to allergens, human data on whether combustion particulates enhance the inflammatory response to allergen are limited. Therefore, we conducted...
Read preview Overview
Ultrafine Particulate Pollutants Induce Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage. (Research)
The objectives of this study Were to determine whether differences in the size and composition of coarse (2.5-10 [micro]m), fine (< 2.5 [micro]m), and ultrafine (< 0.1 [micro]m) particulate matter (PM) are related to their uptake in macrophages...
Read preview Overview
Understanding Effects of Organic Diesel Exhaust Particles. (Headliners: Air Pollution)
Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) can exacerbate asthma and cause allergic inflammation. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)--an easily respirable component of PM--are known to cause proinflammatory...
Read preview Overview