Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 114, No. 6, June

Activation of the Stress Axis and Neurochemical Alterations in Specific Brain Areas by Concentrated Ambient Particle Exposure with Concomitant Allergic Airway Disease
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to respiratory diseases in people living in urban communities. The mechanism by which PM produces these diseases is not clear. We hypothesized that PM could act on the brain directly...
Read preview Overview
A Hitchhiker's Guide to the NIEHS Strategic Plan
In the lexicon of organizations, government ones especially, the words "strategic plan" may often be perceived as a synonym for "long, boring, inscrutable document full of jargon." Not so the NIEHS Strategic Plan. Conceived as a means of structuring...
Read preview Overview
A Most Irregular Threat: Old Gas Regulators Can Present Mercury Exposure
Residential gas regulators reduce the pressure of gas from main feeder lines to usable levels for household pipes. Gas regulators built before 1961 were commonly located within dwellings and incorporated a component that contained, on average, 136...
Read preview Overview
A Rule Gone Awry?
The U.S. EPA's new Protections for Subjects in Human Research rule, which came into force on 7 April 2006, was born of a need to tighten the ethical guidelines controlling nonmedical human experimentation. The rule was ostensibly designed to offer...
Read preview Overview
Assessing Risks and Benefits of Genistein and Soy
Yet again, the humble soybean has undergone a further cycle of critical scrutiny. The extent to which soy foods and products--or, more relevantly, one of the constituent bioactive components, genistein--pose potential health benefits or risks has once...
Read preview Overview
A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies
Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage...
Read preview Overview
Biomarkers Signal Contaminant Effects on the Organs of English Sole (Parophrys Vetulus) from Puget Sound
Fish living in contaminated environments accumulate toxic chemicals in their tissues. Biomarkers are needed to identify the resulting health effects, particularly focusing on early changes at a subcellular level. We used a suite of complementary biomarkers...
Read preview Overview
Biomonitoring of Exposure in Farmworker Studies
Although biomonitoring has been used in many occupational and environmental health and exposure studies, we are only beginning to understand the complexities and uncertainties involved with the biomonitoring process--from study design, to sample collection,...
Read preview Overview
Bringing EXCITEment to the Classroom
Who are the scientists, public health officials, and policy makers who will monitor our relationship with the environment 20 years from now? Right now a lot of them are students in middle and high schools throughout the country. And it's a certainty...
Read preview Overview
Cadmium-Induced Effects on Bone in a Population-Based Study of Women
High cadmium exposure is known to cause bone damage, but the association between low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis remains to be clarified. Using a population-based women's health survey in southern Sweden [Women's Health in the Lund Area...
Read preview Overview
Cadmium Induces the Expression of Grp78, an Endoplasmic Reticulum Molecular Chaperone, in LLC-PK1 Renal Epithelial Cells
To reveal the effects of cadmium exposure on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, we examined the expression and function of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), an ER-resident molecular chaperone, in LLC-PK1 cells. In cells treated...
Read preview Overview
Childhood Lead Exposure in the Palestinian Authority, Israel, and Jordan: Results from the Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation Project, 1996-2000
In the Middle East, the major sources of lead exposure have been leaded gasoline, lead-contaminated flour from traditional stone mills, focal exposures from small battery plants and smelters, and kohl (blue color) in cosmetics. In 1998-2000, we measured...
Read preview Overview
Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Oxidative Stress: OGG1 Expression and Arsenic Exposure, Nail Selenium, and Skin Hyperkeratosis in Inner Mongolia
Arsenic, a human carcinogen, is known to induce oxidative damage to DNA. In this study we investigated oxidative stress and As exposure by determining gene expression of OGG1, which codes for an enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, involved in removing...
Read preview Overview
Community Outreach and Translation Core: Translating Research Findings to Improve the Health of Our Children
A key goal of the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research is translating basic research findings into intervention and prevention methods to enhance awareness among communities, health care professionals, and policy...
Read preview Overview
Development of a Health-Protective Drinking Water Level for Perchlorate
We evaluated animal and human toxicity data for perchlorate and identified reduction of thyroidal iodide uptake as the critical end point in the development of a health-protective drinking water level [also known as the public health goal (PHG)] for...
Read preview Overview
Differences in Tumor-Associated Protein Levels among Middle-Age Flemish Women in Association with Area of Residence and Exposure to Pollutants
We measured tumor-associated proteins (TAPs) and pollutants in blood, serum, and urine of 200 nonsmoking women 50-65 years of age, residing in the rural municipality of Peer or in Hoboken or Wilrijk, industrial suburbs of Antwerp, Belgium. Persons...
Read preview Overview
Do Antibiotics Now Mean Asthma Later?
Asthma affects 1 in 8 school-aged children in industrialized countries, making it the most common chronic illness in this group. Now a meta-analysis of child asthma studies led by pharmaceutical scientist Fawziah Marra of the University of British...
Read preview Overview
Effects of BPA in Snails
It is an ethical requirement that new findings be presented in light of and in conjunction with a balanced evaluation of the current knowledge and published literature. We believe that Oehlmann et al. (2005) violated this general principle in several...
Read preview Overview
Effects of BPA in Snails: Oehlmann et Al. Respond
We welcome critical appraisals that help to provide balance; however, Dietrich et al. gave an unjustified reproach. We feel that Dietrich's position is severely compromised because he serves as an expert for the bisphenol A (BPA) Industry Group (Brussels,...
Read preview Overview
Enlisting Tobacco in the Fight against Anthrax
Just weeks after the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to newspapers and television stations in New York and to two U.S. senators on Capitol Hill. Although only a few letters were...
Read preview Overview
Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes
Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of...
Read preview Overview
Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance
Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first...
Read preview Overview
Exposures to Air Pollutants during Pregnancy and Preterm Delivery
The association between preterm delivery (PTD) and exposure to air pollutants has recently become a major concern. We investigated this relationship in Incheon, Republic of Korea, using spatial and temporal modeling to better infer individual exposures....
Read preview Overview
Exposure to a Fungal Volatile Compound: Significance of Effects
In contrast to what Walinder et al. (2005) concluded in their article "Acute Effects of a Fungal Volatile Compound," I interpret the article to report essentially no effects beyond chance. In all, the authors carried out some 76 comparisons (each one...
Read preview Overview
Exposure to a Fungal Volatile Compound: Walinder et Al. Respond
There are different opinions on the use of Bonferroni's corrections. Everitt (1995) stated that it gives too conservative estimates if there are more than five tests performed. In environmental medicine, one exposure can have different health effects,...
Read preview Overview
Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodologic Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data
The exposure of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families to agricultural and residential pesticides is a continuing public health concern. Pesticide exposure research has been spurred on by the development of sensitive and reliable laboratory...
Read preview Overview
Gene-Environment Interactions: Fundamentals of Ecogenetics
Edited by Lucio G. Costa and David L. Eaton Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. 450 pp. ISBN:0-471-46781-2. $110. Specific hereditary susceptibility has now evolved into the field of ecogenetics. If you have ever pondered why an individual...
Read preview Overview
Genomewide Screen Reveals Candidate Genes for Neural Tube Defects
Rampersaud E, Bassuk AG, Enterline DS, George TM, Siegel DG, Melvin EC, et al. 2005. Whole genomewide linkage screen for neural tube defects reveals regions of interest on chromosomes 7 and 10. J Med Genet 42:940-946. Neural tube defects are among...
Read preview Overview
High-Test Mothers' Milk
A lack of regulation means that herbal remedies can be ineffective or, conversely, far more potent than users may suspect. Researchers in Taiwan have found a new reason for consumers to be wary of certain herbal remedies: some herbs used in traditional...
Read preview Overview
Incidence of Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma in Czech Uranium Miners: A Case-Cohort Study
OBJECTIVE: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to low levels of radon and its progeny. We investigated whether radon exposure is associated with increased incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma in this population. DESIGN: We conducted...
Read preview Overview
Interaction of the Onset of Spring and Elevated Atmospheric C[O.Sub.2] on Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) Pollen Production
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is responsible for climate changes that are having widespread effects on biological systems. One of the clearest changes is earlier onset of spring and lengthening of the growing season. We designed the present...
Read preview Overview
Live from Dubai: A New Chemical Agreement
After late-night, last-minute negotiations, a voluntary international agreement to protect humans and the environment against harmful chemicals was adopted on 6 February 2006. Representatives from 140 countries, environmental advocacy groups, industry...
Read preview Overview
Low-Level Ozone Exposure and Respiratory Symptoms in Infants
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies indicate that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ozone standards may not protect sensitive individuals. In this study we examined respiratory effects of ozone in infants who may be vulnerable, particularly if they...
Read preview Overview
New Books
Academic Scientists at Work, 2nd ed. Jeremy Boss, Susan Eckert New York:Springer, 2006. 296 pp. ISBN: 0-387-32176-4, $29.95 Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Wee Keong Ng, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Jianzhong Li, eds. Berlin:Springer-Verlag,...
Read preview Overview
NTP Multigenerational Study of Environmental Estrogens
Nearly 10 years ago, researchers with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) began a complex set of experiments in rats to determine whether exposure to estrogenic compounds throughout life and...
Read preview Overview
Organophosphates and Outdoor Air Concentrations
Harnly et al. (2005) suggested that measured air concentrations of organophosphate insecticides may pose a particular concern for children's health. However, when considering the current scientific weight of evidence, their conclusions cannot be supported...
Read preview Overview
Organophosphates and Outdoor Air: Harnly et Al. Respond
Peterson is incorrect in stating that we did not conduct a risk assessment. We summarized in our article (Harnly et al. 2005) and detailed in a previous article (Lee et al. 2002) a human health risk assessment demonstrating elevated acute and sub-chronic...
Read preview Overview
Origin and Health Impacts of Emissions of Toxic By-Products and Fine Particles from Combustion and Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes and Materials
High-temperature, controlled incineration and thermal treatment of contaminated soils, sediments, and wastes at Superfund sites are often preferred methods of remediation of contaminated sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,...
Read preview Overview
PCBs Are Endocrine Disruptors: Mixture Affects Reproductive Development in Female Mice
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a broad group of chemicals that includes 209 aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons used for products ranging from fluorescent light fixtures to coolant fluids inside parts of consumer electronics. Short-term exposure...
Read preview Overview
PCBs Exert an Estrogenic Effect through Repression of the Wnt7a Signaling Pathway in the Female Reproductive Tract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been proposed to have a weak estrogenic activity and therefore pose a risk as potential environmental endocrine disruptors to the perinatal development of the female reproductive tract. Perinatal exposure to high...
Read preview Overview
Periplaneta Americana Arginine Kinase as a Major Cockroach Allergen among Thai Patients with Major Cockroach Allergies
Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. We conducted this study to identify...
Read preview Overview
Proximity to Crops and Residential Exposure to Agricultural Herbicides in Iowa
Rural residents can be exposed to agricultural pesticides through the proximity of their homes to crop fields. Previously, we developed a method to create historical crop maps using a geographic information system. The aim of the present study was...
Read preview Overview
Putting a Load on Your Bones: Low-Level Cadmium Exposure and Osteoporosis
High-level exposure to cadmium is known to cause bone damage, including osteoporosis, but the effects of low-level exposure have been less clear. A group of Swedish researchers now shows for the first time that low-level exposure to cadmium also can...
Read preview Overview
Residential Mercury Spills from Gas Regulators
Many older homes are equipped with mercury-containing gas regulators that reduce the pressure of natural gas in the mains to the low pressure used in home gas piping. Removal of these regulators can result in elemental mercury spills inside the home....
Read preview Overview
Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides
A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have...
Read preview Overview
The Public Health Payoff of "No Smoking Allowed": Quantifying Decreases in SHS Exposure
Secondhand smoke (SHS), the cigarette smoke involuntarily inhaled by a nonsmoker, was recognized as a serious health problem as early as 1972. Studies have shown that SHS causes lung cancer and leads to other adverse effects, including lower respiratory...
Read preview Overview
The Science of Soy: What Do We Really Know?
A stroll through nearly any American grocery store or pharmacy yields ample proof of the soybean's increasing role in the U.S. diet. Food packaging offers statements about products' soy content and the purported associated health benefits. Products...
Read preview Overview
The World of Food Science
The International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) is a nonprofit network of national food science organizations and is the only global food science and technology group, while the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) is a U.S. scientific...
Read preview Overview
Trends in the Exposure of Nonsmokers in the U.S. Population to Secondhand Smoke: 1988-2002
The objective of this study was to describe the exposure of nonsmokers in the U.S. population to secondhand smoke (SHS) using serum cotinine concentrations measured over a period of 14 years, from October 1988 through December 2002. This study consists...
Read preview Overview
Trichloroethylene Exposure during Cardiac Valvuloseptal Morphogenesis Alters Cushion Formation and Cardiac Hemodynamics in the Avian Embryo
It is controversial whether trichloroethylene (TCE) is a cardiac teratogen. We exposed chick embryos to 0, 0.4, 8, or 400 ppb TCE/egg during the period of cardiac valvuloseptal morphogenesis (2-3.3 days' incubation). Embryo survival, valvuloseptal...
Read preview Overview
Will Work for Air
Indoor air specialists Olli Seppanen of the Helsinki University of Technology and William Fisk and Q.H. Lei of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are not the first to establish a link between work performance and ventilation--for several decades,...
Read preview Overview
Workplace, Household, and Personal Predictors of Pesticide Exposure for Farmworkers
In this article we identify factors potentially associated with pesticide exposure among farmworkers, grade the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature for such associations, and propose a minimum set of measures necessary to understand farm worker...
Read preview Overview