Psychology Science

Psychology Science is a magazine focusing on Psychology

Articles from Vol. 45, 2003

Children at Risk of Dyslexia: Early Identification and Intervention
SummaryThe purpose of investigation was to verify the new screening method the Scale of the Risk of Dyslexia (SRD). The investigation was undertaken from 1994 to 1998. The first stage of the examination was realized with a sample of 351 children from...
Chronic Illnesses: A European Perspective
SummaryChronic illnesses, a worldwide burden, concern not only the affected individuals but also their caregivers, 80% of them are women. In this paper gender-specific aspects of chronic illnesses are discussed especially from a European perspective....
Chronic Illness: Psychological and Physical Characteristics of Women with Osteoarthritis and Fibromyalgia*
SummaryThe United States National Center for Health Statistics defines chronic illness as a condition that persists for at least 3 months that cannot be cured but must be managed. At present, nearly half of all Americans suffer from at least one chronic...
Comparison of the Role of Explicit and Implicit Knowledge in Working*
Summary, ZusammenfassungStarting with an overview on theoretical and empirical considerations on the properties of explicit and implicit knowledge a summary on the most likely contents and structural features is given. Furthermore, it is shown that current...
Das Selbst Und Sein Bewusstsein. Versuch Einer Systemischen Psychologie
Zusammenfassung, SummaryEs wird der Versuch gemacht, die Prinzipien der allgemeinen Systemtheorie auf die Psychologie anzuwenden. Die Begriffe emergente Systemeigenschaften, Systemzustande und Zustandsgro[beta]en werden auf so kontroverse Probleme wie...
Der "Bindungsfragebogen" Von Grau Und der "Bielefelder Fragebogen Zu Partnerschaftserwartungen" Von Hoger Und Buschkamper Im Vergleich
Zusammenfassung, SummaryDie Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogen zur Messung von Bindungsdimensionen bzw. Bindungsmustern in Partnerschaften wurden in einer Studie mit 173 Personen verglichen. Der Bindungsfragcbogen von Grau (BinFB) enthalt die beiden Skalen...
Dyslexia and Binocular Vision
SummaryFor some years an increasing number of children with reading and writing problems, often combined with other symptoms, has been observed by teachers, psychologists, paediatricians, optometrists, language and dyslexia therapists and also ophthalmologists....
Empirical Evidence for Non-Modular, Microgenetic Linguistic Processing in Reading
SummaryIt is usually assumed that reading proceeds from an initial visual analysis of letters, then to phonological processing, after which the lexicon is accessed for meaning. On the other hand, reading by fluent adult readers is done for overall meaning...
Entwicklung Und Erprobung Einer Testbatterie Zur Diagnostik Bei Simulationsverdacht*
Zusammenfassung, SummaryDie Simulation und absichtliche Verfalschung psychologischer Tests wird in letzter Zeit zwar zunehmend diskutiert und ruckt immer mehr ins Blickfeld der Aufmerksamkeit, diesbezugliche Forschung wurde bis vor kurzem im deutschen...
Evolutionary Events Imprint Learning, Concept Formation, and Language
Key words: evolution, learning, language, concept formation, developmentThe hominidsIt is widely believed that climate changes during the Pleistocene led to a gradual decline in temperature. However, this is not true. There were punctuated climate changes...
From Menarche to Menopause: Misconceptions about Women's Reproductive Lives
SummaryThis paper argues that psychology researchers and the popular media are both guided by two biases when they examine women's reproductive lives: (1) According to the "Women-as-Problem Bias," the negative aspects of women's lives are emphasized,...
Handlungsbezogene Exekutive Kognitionen in der Psychopathologie Und Psychotherapie der Schizophrenen Erkrankung
Zusammenfassung, SummaryKognitiv orientierte Psychotherapieverfahren haben in der Behandlung der schizophrenen Erkrankung an Bedeutung zugenommen. Ihre Wirksamkeit wurde in verschiedenen Beitragen nachgewiesen. Der vorliegende Artikel setzt sich in diesem...
Letter Reversals in Dyslexia: Is the Case Really Closed? A Critical Review and Conclusions
SummaryReading is an automated desymbolization involving parallel operating subfunctions from which the major ones belong to the visual or the language comprehension domain, coordinated by guiding cognitive subfunctions. In this review, theories on dyslexia...
Levels of Processing, Incidental Memory and Speech in Stress Condition
SummaryThe aim of this investigation is to explore if, in the special occasion of anticipatory stress, there is any connection between the levels of processing (LOP) and incidental memory, on one hand and speech, on the other. One hundred university...
Mehrdimensionale Perzeptiv-Kognitive Urteilstypen in der Psychophysikalischen Bezugssystemforschung Bei Kindern Und Erwachsenen*
Zusammenfassung, SummaryIn einem Reizgeneralisationsexperiment mit Kindern und Erwachsenen wurde die Beeinflussung der perzepliven Informationsverarbeitung bezuglich der Dimension Helligkeit (9stufig) durch die Dimension Grosse (zweistufig) untersucht....
Obesity and Stigma: Important Issues in Women's Health
SummaryThe prevalence of obesity in women in the U.S. and Europe has reached epidemic proportions, and rates of obesity are growing rapidly even in the developing regions of the world. Consequences of obesity include negative health outcomes as well...
Preface
Women's health issues have received international attention over the past decade. The guidelines for the inclusion of women in research have been in place at the U.S. National Institutes of Health since 1986, but became legally binding only in 1994....
Proxy-Ratings versus Self-Ratings in Assessing the Quality of Life of Women with Gynecological Cancer
SummaryThe objectives of this study were: (1) to compare patient-ratings in different areas of quality of life (QOL) with proxy-ratings provided by health professionals and informal caregivers, and (2) to investigate the level of agreement between patient-...
Psychosocial Consequences of Breast Cancer for Patients and Families
SummaryBreast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting women, and it is the second deadliest. As with many other cancers, it is known as a family disease, in that it may affect the psychosocial functioning of the family as a whole and of...
Sexual and Reproductive Life of Women: Gender Equality in Women's Reproductive Health in Western Europe and the US
SummaryGender equality in the sexual and reproductive life of women is an ongoing issue. Male interests, attitudes and beliefs still have a tremendous impact on the lives of females. On the one hand, methodological aspects in research play a crucial...
Tacit Knowledge and Experience in Working*
Summary, ZusammenfassungStarting with an integration of research results in the area of tacit knowledge and experience-guided working, a method for the explication of tacit knowledge in the domain of nursing is outlined. Besides the validation of this...
Training of Working Memory Performance in Dyslexics
SummaryReading and writing are based on complex adaptive processes of perception, attention, and memory. A failure in learning to read can be due to a dysfunction of a single process, a number of serial processes, or to the interaction of parallel processes....
Uber Lernen*
Zusammenfassung, SummaryAn Hand unterschiedlicher Beispiele wird gezeigt, dass Lernprozesse verdeckte Gedachtnisprozesse voraussetzen. Bei diesen Gedachtnisprozessen ("rezeptiven Erinnerungen") durfte es sich um eine phylogenetisch alte Gedachtnisform...
Was Erfasst das Testsystem AMG? Zur Messung der Emotionalen Grundlagen Habitueller Aggressivitat
Zusammenfassung, SummaryDas AMG ist ein motivationstheoretisch fundiertes Testsystem zur Messung habitueller Aggressivitat bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (BURKHARDT 1986 a; BURKHARDT 1986 b; BURKHARDT, ZUMKLEY & KORNADT 1987; ZUMKLEY 1987; SELG, MEES...