History Today

History Today is a monthly magazine published by History Today, Ltd. Founded in 1951, it is owned by Andy Patterson and has a circulation of roughly 30,000 subscribers. Headquarters are based in London, England.The magazine, which is geared towards teachers, students, and those with an interest in history, publishes essays written by some leading history scholars covering myriad periods, regions, topics, and themes in history. It is available in print and online.The print version was founded by Brendan Backen, who worked as the Minister of Information during World War II. He was also the publisher of the Financial Times. Currently, both print and online versions are published under the vision and guide of editor-in-chief, Paul Lay.History Today offers readers articles ranging from atomic medicine to the rise and fall of empires. Each essay comes with illustrations selected by picture editor Sheila Corr. The web edition includes a news digest from web editor, Kathryn Hadley.Subscribers can buy an annual subscription for either the web or print version. Web subscribers can also purchase access to articles from the publication's archives dating back to 1980. The magazine also has a sister publication, History Review, which is aimed at students and is published three times each year.

Articles from Vol. 56, No. 9, September

Anatolian Retreat: Robin Waterfield, Author of a New Book on the Greek Soldier Xenophon, Explains How He Came to Retrace the Steps of the Soldier's Famous Journey to the Black Sea
ALONG WITH COUNTLESS SCHOOLCHILDREN, stretching back to ancient Rome, I encountered Xenophon's Anabasis young. By the age of twelve, I was struggling through excerpts or, worse, translating a paragraph of military English into hesitant and hideous...
Birth of John Loudon McAdam: September 21st, 1756
BRITAIN'S GREATEST CREATOR OF ROADS since Roman times was born in Ayr, the youngest of ten children, eight of whom were girls. His parents were minor gentry: his mother was a Cochrane and a niece of the Earl of Dundonald. But the family finances were...
Faces of Science: Ludmilla Jordanova Looks at the Ways in Which Scientists Presented Themselves and Their Activities to the Public through Art, and Considers How This Reflects on the Public Presentation of History
PORTRAITS OF SCIENTISTS have a long and complex history, uniting art and science, past and present. They also bring diverse constituencies into fruitful conversations: historians, sitters, artists, collectors and patrons, the staff of museums, those...
How Our Enemy Made Us Better: Federico Guillermo Lorenz Looks at Argentinian Memories of the Second World War during and after the Malvinas-Falklands War of 1982
IN 1982, ARGENTINA and Great Britain faced off in the Malvinas-Falklands War. Taking advantage of the long-held popular desire to reclaim the islands for Argentine sovereignty, the military Junta, in power since 1976, planned and ordered the operation....
Launch of the Mauretania: September 20th, 1906
THE OCEAN LINERS OF THE YEARS before and after the First World War, forcing their imperious way through the heaving water with their dark hulls, gleaming white superstructures and towering raked funnels, were compelling images of human achievement...
Longman-History Today Awards 2007
Entries are invited for the 2007 Longman-History Today Books of the Year Awards. These are made jointly by the publishers Longman and History Today magazine to mark links between the two organizations and to foster a wider understanding of, and enthusiasm...
Murray Minted: Ruth Boreham Outlines the History of the Famous Publishing Dynasty Whose Archive Has Been Preserved for the Nation and Is Now Accessible to All at the National Library of Scotland
IN MARCH 2006 THE JOHN MURRAY ARCHIVE moved from Albemarle Street, London, to its new, permanent home in the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. Change of ownership was made possible by a major grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund, a large contribution...
Orchestration ... or Castration? the Controversial Decision to Uncover the Remains of the Famous 18th-Century Castrato Farinelli in Bologna May or May Not Prove Insightful for Music Historians ... While an Exhibition on Castrati in London Illuminates This Exclusive Profession for the Wider Public
ON JULY 12TH THIS YEAR, the remains of the legendary castrato Farinelli (Carlo Broschi 1705-82) were disinterred in La Certosa, the main cemetery in Bologna, Italy. In moderate condition, Farinelli's remains were reported at first sight as confirming...
Pie in the Sky? as Battle of Britain Day Approaches Brian James Has Been Finding out Why Some of Today's Leading Military Historians Argue That It Was Not the RAF but the Royal Navy That Saved Britain in 1940
ON SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 17TH, Britain will once again remember the epic struggle of Fighter Command in the Second World War at a service of thanksgiving and rededication in Westminster Abbey before a congregation of airmen past and present. Like the great...
Poitiers: High Point of the Hundred Years' War: Ian Mortimer Remembers the English Triumph at Poitiers in September 1356, and Suggests That This Victory Was the Dramatic Culmination of Edward III's Visionary Approach to Waging War, the Consequences of Which Are Still with Us Today
SIX HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS ago, on the evening of Sunday, September 18th, 1356, Edward 'the Black Prince' ordered his army to camp for the night near the abbey of Nouaille in western France. With him were about 7,000 men, including about a thousand...
Roman Monument: Anthony Grafton Remembers Theodor Mommsen, the Great German Historian of the Roman Republic and Literary Giant of His Day
IN THE SPRING OF 1892, Mark Twain described Berlin for the readers of the Chicago Tribune. He admired the city's beauty, the cleanliness of its streets, and the energy of its inhabitants, but it was the bustling Berliners' reverence for science and...
The Bridge of Venice: Charles Freeman Visits a City That Has Been Defined by Its Waterways-And above All, by Its Bridge
'THE SENATE DECIDED TO TAKE DOWN the aforementioned timber bridge, to build a new one all of stone, which would be of great ornament to the city, and a marvel to all who would see it. And so three of the most senior Senators were elected ... and ordered...
The Cross and the State: Christopher Tyerman, Author of a New History of the Crusading Movement, Explains Why He Believes the Crusades Were Important in Shaping the Ideology and Fiscal and Political Structures of the Secular State
ON THE FACE OF IT, medieval crusading appears to have little to do with the creation of modern secular Europe. The crusades were a form of Christian holy war characterized by demonizing rhetoric, spiritual enthusiasm, religious ceremonies, ecclesiastical...
The Death of C.B. Fry: September 7th, 1956
CHARLES BURGESS FRY was the greatest all-round sportsman of his time, and perhaps of any time. A top performer at cricket, athletics and two kinds of football, he also shone as an angler, golfer, skater and skier, rower and tennis player. Contrary...
The Discreet Virtues of the Bourgeoisie: Deirdre McCloskey Describes How Europe after 1600 Half Escaped the Ancient Condemnation of Economic Life
EUROPEAN CULTURE IN CLASSICAL and Christian times spurned work and the bourgeoisie. Yet from 1600 to 1800, startlingly, it developed a lively appreciation of the 'bourgeois virtues', from which came the stirrings of enterprise that made the modern...
The Other Giles
CARL GILES, OBE, WHO WAS BORN ninety years ago this month, needs no introduction to British readers. A national institution, beloved of the Royal Family, politicians, media celebrities and the general public alike, he created more than 7,000 cartoons...
The Three Cultures
C. P. SNOW FAMOUSLY TALKED OF the mutual incomprehension of the two cultures, the humanities and the sciences, but perhaps there is a third, equally important to our society, that has often been at odds with both, and long been denigrated by each....
Universal Projects for the Universal Man
THE ARTIST, SCIENTIST, BOTANIST, ANATOMIST, engineer, inventor and all-round genius Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) used paper in a unique way. His notebooks are full of ideas sketched just as they poured into his head, seeking solutions to problems...
Was Leonardo a Christian? the Beliefs of the Man Who Painted Some of the Most Famous Christian Images Are Shrouded in Mystery. Alex Keller Coaxes Leonardo Da Vinci's Thoughts out of Some Little-Known Personal Writings
'LEONARDO formed in his mind a conception so heretical as not to approach any religion whatsoever ... perhaps he esteemed being a philosopher much more than being a Christian.' VASARI, 1560 IN THE ACCOUNT OF Leonardo's life in the first edition...