History Today

History Today is a monthly magazine published by History Today, Ltd. Founded in 1951, it is owned by Andy Patterson and has a circulation of roughly 30,000 subscribers. Headquarters are based in London, England.The magazine, which is geared towards teachers, students, and those with an interest in history, publishes essays written by some leading history scholars covering myriad periods, regions, topics, and themes in history. It is available in print and online.The print version was founded by Brendan Backen, who worked as the Minister of Information during World War II. He was also the publisher of the Financial Times. Currently, both print and online versions are published under the vision and guide of editor-in-chief, Paul Lay.History Today offers readers articles ranging from atomic medicine to the rise and fall of empires. Each essay comes with illustrations selected by picture editor Sheila Corr. The web edition includes a news digest from web editor, Kathryn Hadley.Subscribers can buy an annual subscription for either the web or print version. Web subscribers can also purchase access to articles from the publication's archives dating back to 1980. The magazine also has a sister publication, History Review, which is aimed at students and is published three times each year.

Articles from Vol. 59, No. 7, July

Above and Beyond: In 1969 Men Set Foot on the Moon for the First Time. the Apollo Space Programme That Put Them There Was the Product of an Age of Optimism and Daring Very Different from Our Own
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] It is 40 years since Neil Armstrong took his 'giant leap for mankind' on the early summer morning of July 20th, 1969. It was the high point of a vast and expensive space programme initiated by President John F. Kennedy in...
A Mini Milestone: The Iconic Mini-Minor, Which Celebrates Its Half Centenary Next Month, Was a British Industry Triumph before Inefficiency Stalled Its Success
On August 26th the Mini will be celebrating its 50th birthday, an event inevitably accompanied by a flood of tabloid cliches referencing the Beatles, Carnaby Street, Peter Sellers, Swinging London and The Italian Job. The all-British Mini is now a...
Austria's Diminutive Dictator: A Right-Wing Catholic Who Crushed All His Rivals, Engelbert Dollfuss Fought Hard to Maintain His Young Republic's Independence. A.D. Harvey Looks at the Life of the Tiny Patriot of Peasant Stock Who Stood Up to Hitler and Asks What Might Have Happened Had He Not Been Assassinated during the Early Days of the Nazi Era
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] This month sees the 75th anniversary of the assassination of Engelbert Dollfuss, one of the least-known but most intriguing of Europe's 20th-century dictators. On July 25th, 1934, less than a month after the 'Night of the...
Byzantine Revelation: The Building of Istanbul's New Underground Railway Has Uncovered Thousands of Years of History, Including the First Complete Byzantine Naval Craft Ever Found
Archaeologist Metin Gokcay knocked on many doors in the small towns of Anatolia until he finally found the last known craftsman to carve hair combs exactly like the one he had dug out and dated back to the Byzantine era. The craftsman had stopped making...
Decolonising Minds: As Algeria Prepares This Month to Host the Second Pan-African Cultural Festival, with 48 Countries Participating, Martin Evans Describes the Original Festival Held 40 Years Ago in Algiers and the Spirit of Creativity and Anti-Colonialism That Defined It
On July 21st, 1969, 4,000 artists converged on Algiers for the first Pan-African Cultural Festival. Representing 31 nations from across the continent, painters, poets, photographers, musicians and intellectuals transformed the streets into a meeting...
From the Editor
Things moved very quickly in the 1960s and the Saturn V rocket moved faster than anything else. Among the most beautiful objects ever created, it attained speeds of up to 25,000 mph as it thrust fragile men of skin and bone and massive heart towards...
Industrial Power Brokers: This Year Marks the 300th Anniversary of the Birth of the Industrial Revolution in What Is Now a Quiet Shropshire Town as Well as the 200th Anniversary of the Death of One of Britain's Greatest Industrialists, Matthew Boulton
Ironically, the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution occupies one of the finest scenic views in England. Opened on New Year's Day in 1781, the striking arched Iron Bridge that spans the Severn Gorge is today overlooked by the town that takes its...
Months Past: A French Monarch Dies, a Great Warship Is Born and a Gangster Is Caught. Richard Cavendish Looks at This Month's Anniversaries
July 10 1559 Henry II of France dies of tournament wounds Born in 1519, the future Henry II married Catherine de Medici in 1533 when they were both 14 years old. His father, King Francis I, reportedly supervised the consummation, announcing they...
Paris Peace Discord: Hugh Purcell Looks at How 90 Years Ago the British Empire Rejected the Principle of Racial Equality on Which the Commonwealth Is Now Based
The Commonwealth, which celebrates its 60th anniversary this year, is dedicated to the principle of racial equality. The Singapore Declaration of 1971 proclaims: 'We believe in equal rights for all citizens regardless of race ... We recognise racial...
Poster Boy: Mark Bryant Looks at the Artist Behind One of the Most Iconic Images of the 20th Century
Though a contemporary of such well-known graphic artists as David Low, 'Fougasse', Heath Robinson and H.M. Bateman, the cartoonist Alfred Leete is not widely known today. Yet one of his drawings, originally a cover illustration for the now long-forgotten...
Restoring Faith: At the End of the 19th Century, with Religious Belief under Increasing Attack, the British Antiquarian Arthur Evans Sought to 'Re-Enchant' the World with His Utopian Interpretation of Crete's Ancient Minoan Civilisation
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In 1830 Auguste Comte laid out his scheme of the three phases of human development, culminating in the 'positive' stage in which belief in demons and gods would be supplanted by an understanding of natural laws. Just eight...
Signposts the Victorians: In the Second of Our Occasional Series Exploring the Ways in Which Topical Historical Subjects Are Being Tackled in a Variety of Media, Rohan McWilliam Examines a Time in Britain's History That Seems to Repay Frequent Revisiting More Than a Century after It Ended
Bombastic, imperialistic, pompous: the charge sheet against the Victorians is extensive. Didn't Victorian gentlemen trumpet their moral values before visiting the local prostitute? Didn't they insist that poverty was the fault of the poor? Most conversations...
Spanning Centuries: Until 1729, London Bridge Was the Capital's Only Crossing over the Thames and a Microcosm of the City It Served, Lined with Houses and Shops on Either Side. on the 800th Anniversary of Its Original Construction, Leo Hollis Looks at the History of an Icon
Every city has its foundation stones, often wrapped up in myth, conjecture and odd truths: Rome was created out of the walls built by Romulus on the Palatine Hill; Paris was born of an artificial island midstream of the Seine; London emerged out of...
Stranglehold on Victorian Society: 'Garotting', or the Strangulation of a Victim in the Course of a Robbery, Haunted the British Public in the 1850s. Emelyne Godfrey Describes the Measures Taken to Prevent It and the Range of Gruesome Self-Defence Devices That Were Often of Greater Danger to the Wearer Than to the Assailant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Walking the streets at night, a Victorian man about town knowingly ran the risk of being subjected to assault and robbery. In the mid-19th century, the public was panicked by the presence of a particular form of violent robbery:...
The First Common Market? in the 13th Century a Remarkable Trading Block Was Formed in Northern Europe. Stephen Halliday Explains How the Hanseatic League Prospered for 300 Years before the Rise of the Nation State Led to Its Dissolution
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] The Hanseatic League, or Hansa, began as a northern European trading confederation in the middle of the 13th century. It continued for some 300 years. Its network of alliances grew to 170 cities and it protected its interests...
The Good Companion: Nonagenarian Historian and Polymath Charles Arnold-Baker Talks to Paul Lay about His Extraordinary Life and His Equally Remarkable Life's Work
Charles Arnold-Baker is the author of The Companion to British History, a yellow brick-like tome of more than 1,400 pages. Note that he is author rather than editor: he wrote every one of the thousands of economical, haiku-like entries covering a vast...
William Jones and His Circle: The Man Who Invented the Concept of Pi: In 1706 a Little-Known Mathematics Teacher William Jones First Used a Symbol to Represent the Platonic Concept of Pi, an Ideal That in Numerical Terms Can Be Approached, but Never Reached. Patricia Rothman Discusses Jones's Significance among His Contemporaries and the Unique Archive That Forms His Legacy
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] The history of the constant ratio of the circumference to the diameter of any circle is as old as man's desire to measure; whereas the symbol for this ratio known today as [pi] (pi) dates from the early 18th century. Before...