History Today

History Today is a monthly magazine published by History Today, Ltd. Founded in 1951, it is owned by Andy Patterson and has a circulation of roughly 30,000 subscribers. Headquarters are based in London, England.The magazine, which is geared towards teachers, students, and those with an interest in history, publishes essays written by some leading history scholars covering myriad periods, regions, topics, and themes in history. It is available in print and online.The print version was founded by Brendan Backen, who worked as the Minister of Information during World War II. He was also the publisher of the Financial Times. Currently, both print and online versions are published under the vision and guide of editor-in-chief, Paul Lay.History Today offers readers articles ranging from atomic medicine to the rise and fall of empires. Each essay comes with illustrations selected by picture editor Sheila Corr. The web edition includes a news digest from web editor, Kathryn Hadley.Subscribers can buy an annual subscription for either the web or print version. Web subscribers can also purchase access to articles from the publication's archives dating back to 1980. The magazine also has a sister publication, History Review, which is aimed at students and is published three times each year.

Articles from Vol. 58, No. 12, December

1066 and All That: History Today's Christmas Quiz for All the Family
[1] Who was the first person to be crowned Queen of England in her own right (not as the wife of a King)? [2] Which castle was Edward II on his way to relieve when he was defeated at the Battle of Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314? [3]...
A Prince in the Promised Land: At the End of the First World War, the British Monarchy Sought to Strengthen Bonds across the English-Speaking World. Frank Prochaska Discusses the Ambassadorial Role Played by Edward, Prince of Wales, in the United States
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] To the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII, America was, as he put it, 'a country in which nothing was impossible'. He first came face-to-face with Americans in the First World War when he served as a staff officer, mixing...
Chinese at the Somme: Lucy Winstanley Describes an Unusual Cemetery of the 1914-18 War, the Burial Place of Chinese Workers Who Joined the Allied Forces in the War against the Kaiser
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In a sleepy village on Somme estuary in northern France, a small First World War cemetery pays homage to the memory of the men of the Chinese Labour Corps, whose contribution to the Allied war effort has largely been forgotten...
City with a Past: Today a Documentation Centre Stands on the Site of the Former Nazi Party Rally Grounds in Nuremberg. Neil Gregor Reflects on the City Council's Response to the Neo-Nazi Revival of the 1960s
Few German cities were left as awkward an inheritance by the Nazi regime as Nuremberg. The annual gatherings of the Nazi faithful had symbolized both the propagandistic display and the destructive will to power of the Nazi movement, and served to ensure...
Dec 10 1908: Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize
The founding father of nuclear physics was born on a farm in New Zealand in 1871, the fourth of twelve children. He made a brilliant impression at school and university and in 1895 went on a scholarship to the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. In...
Dec 23 1948: Tojo Hideki Executed
The dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 forced the Japanese government into unconditional surrender and the country, which was in a state of collapse, was occupied by Allied forces under an eleven-nation commission...
Dec 9 1608: Birth of John Milton
In the early years of the reign of James I, on a winter morning, a baby son was born to the Milton family in a substantial wooden house in Bread Street in the City of London. Their oldest son, he was christened John, after his father, in nearby All...
France's Fiasco in Brazil: In the Event Spain and Portugal Divided Almost All of South America between, Them but in the Sixteenth Century the French Also Had Commercial and Colonial Ambitions in Brazil. Robert Knecht Tells the Stories of Two French Expeditions That Ended in Disaster
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] France is not normally associated with the European discovery and settlement of Latin America. In 1493. the year after Columbus's first voyage to the West Indies. the Spanish Pope Alexander VI promulgated the bull Inter Cuetera...
Global Vision: When US Astronauts Were Blown Away by Their First View of Earth from Space, Forty Years Ago This Month, the Moment Re-Energized One World Ideals of Unity and Peace, Writes Robert Poole, Even as the Cold War Raged
It took them by surprise. On Christmas Eve 1968 three American explorers were in orbit around the Moon: Frank Borman, James Lovell and Bill Anders. The crew of Apollo 8 had been recognized by the United Nations as the 'envoys of mankind in outer space':...
Goonhilly Not Down: Nigel Watson Reports the Decision to Keep Cornwall's Telecommunications Operation Going after All
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In 2006 British Telecom announced that, from September this year, it would close its Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station on the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall and transfer all its operations to Madley in Herefordshire. The local...
History: 2008: Juliet Gardiner Offers Some Seasonal Suggestions
History Today asked some of Britain's leading historians which history book or books they had most enjoyed reading in 2008. Here we publish their choices. Mixed in with these are reminders of other books published recently--some of them paperbacks--that...
Knocking out the Boxers: Mark Bryant Looks at the Cartoons Produced in Response to the Conflict Which Followed the Opium Wars between China and the West
The Boxer Rebellion of 1899-1900 was the fourth conflict involving China and Britain in sixty years and came about when a group of ultra-patriotic Chinese, eager to expel all foreigners from their homeland, attacked and killed a number of British Christian...
Magnificence of the Tsars: Kathryn Hadley Previews a New Exhibition at the Victoria & Albert Museum
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In 1780, Catherine II wrote to Grimm, her Paris correspondent: 'At present you in Paris wear Russian hats and ribbons: the French have gone head-over-heels for me, as if I were a feather for their hats'. Reciprocally, however,...
Nursing Times: Whether or Not Mothers Should Nurse Their Own Children Has Been a Subject of Debate from Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome through All of Modern European History to the Present Day. Paul Doolan Reviews the Arguments That Have Been Presented over the Centuries and the Way in Which Fashions Have Changed
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Stories this year of thousands of Chinese infants made ill by contaminated milk powder briefly caught the world's attention. Yet in 2007 alone, according to the United Nations International Children's Educational Fund (UNICEF),...
Shades of Difference: Alastair Bonnett Investigates the Intriguing and Often Controversial History of African Native Americans-Black Indians-In the Light of Present-Day Concerns about Citizenship
A genealogical cottage industry has sprung up in the United States offering to help 'African ancestored Indians' locate and reclaim their Indian roots. The hunger to add 'a bit of Indian' to one's individual racial heritage is widespread among whites...
Swinging Sixties the Abolition of Capital Punishment: Liz Homans Looks Back over the Long Campaign to Remove the Death Penalty from the Statute Book. the Article Is an Edited Version of Her BA Dissertation, Which Was 'Highly Commended' by the Royal Historical Society/History Today Judges in January
At 8 am on August 13th, 1964, Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans were hanged--Evans at Strangeways in Manchester, Allen at Walton Prison in Liverpool. They were the respective hangmen's last jobs. The following year Parliament voted to abolish the death...
Tea, Toilets & Typewriters: Frances Borzello Seeks to Explain the Rise of Women's Clubs in London before the First World War-And Their Equally Swift Demise
The rise and rise of the London women's club was a phenomenon of the three decades before the First World War. Ranging from female clones of the Mayfair gentlemen's clubs to clubs for working girls, they were enough of a presence by the mid-1890s to...
The Liberals' Last Hurrah: York Membery Looks Back to the Crunch 1920s Election Which Saw the Party of Gladstone Narrowly Pushed into Third Place-A Position from Which It Has Never Recovered
The 1906 general election gave the Liberals a landslide victory--399 seats and an overall majority of 130, with the Unionist Party reduced to a rump of 156. The big issue had been the threat to free trade, which was championed by the Liberals, versus...
The Worthy Doctor Fuller: M.J. Cohen Celebrates the Life of Thomas Fuller, a Pioneer Historian and Contemporary of Milton, with Whom He Shares a 400th Anniversary
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] 'History, maketh a young man to be old, without either wrinkles or grey hairs; privileging him with the experience of age, without either the infirmities or inconveniences thereof. Yea, it not only maketh things past, present;...