Kritika

Articles from Vol. 12, No. 2, Spring

Abdurrezzak Bedirhan: Ottoman Kurd and Russophile in the Twilight of Empire
In a January 1914 article in the London journal The National Review, Walter Guinness described the situation in Ottoman eastern Anatolia. (1) Events in that distant region were topical, even for a British audience. The Ottoman Empire had long served...
A View from the Ottoman Margin
A growing number of Ottomanist scholars have started to study commercial, cultural, and diplomatic encounters between Europe and the Ottoman world and have moved away from essentialist arguments that draw hard and fast boundaries between the civilizations....
Central Asia between the Ottoman and the Soviet Worlds
On 1 September 1920, the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, accompanied by local militias, undertook what tsarist armies had consistently chosen to avoid. It stormed the gates of the city of Bukhara and overthrew the emir, Sayyid Alim Khan. The need...
Military Transformation in the Ottoman Empire and Russia, 1500-1800
By the early 16th century, the Ottoman Empire had emerged as a major military power in Southeastern Europe and the Middle East. The Ottomans were feared and admired by contemporaneous Europeans from Niccolo Machiavelli to Ivan Peresvetov. The latter...
Models, Margins, and Imperial Entanglements
The present issue of Kritika develops a theme that we initially raised in our last "From the Editors" column: the interactions and borrowings among empires on Europe's periphery. Troubled by the tendency in the historiography to construe models for...
Orientalism on the Margins: The Ottoman Empire under Russian Eyes
Throughout its modern history, Russia was more frequently at war with the Ottoman Empire than with any other power. Russo-Ottoman wars took place between the late 17th and the late 19th centuries and were paralleled by other forms of contact, including...
Spaces of Entanglement
The imperial turn, which for the past 25 years has directed the attention of historians toward empires, may have lost its first impetus, but as the journals Ab Imperio and Kritika as well as recent collective volumes and research projects have shown,...
The Property of Empire: Islamic Law and Russian Agrarian Policy in Transcaucasia and Turkestan
At the center of this essay is an analysis of the implementation of discourses on "Islam and property" in Russian colonial policy in Transcaucasia and Central Asia. The essay seeks to analyze how the common (European) language for describing property...
World War and World Revolution: Alexander Helphand-Parvus in Germany and Turkey
The number of those who resist the tyranny of Russia, who take up arms and throw dynamite, increases every day. When the Russians rise up, the Ottomans must rise up too, and when the Ottomans rise up, the Russians must do the same. The world is in...