Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table

Articles from Spring

Addressing the Panic about 'Obesity': Policy to Protect Health
Introduction The scenarios for moral panics change but in the history of such panics, areas of commonality can be seen and are certainly characteristic of panic about obesity (Rosenberg 1992). In many moral panic scenarios there is, at some level,...
Adult Disease Induction and Life Course Events: Some Perspectives from a Resource-Compromised Economy
Introduction The Nigerian newborn infant is faced with 'Quadruple-barrel Survival Tragedy'. Born in a country with a low-birthweight rate of 16% (UNICEF 2005), Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) averaging 50/ 1000 live-births and Maternal Mortality Ratio...
Aging Well through Long-Standing Social Occupation: A Closer Look at Social Participation and Quality of Life in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Introduction Background Social participation is a lifelong process that contributes to both successful aging and quality of life. Social participation can be viewed as engagement in a variety of social occupations or activities that include interaction...
Catch Me If You Can: A Taxonomically Structured Approach to Cybercrime
Introduction Jurisdiction and physical presence of a perpetrator and evidence form the basis of the majority of existing legal structures that address criminal issues. Tangible, physical evidence is the foundation on which most successfully prosecuted...
Creating Ethical Environment and Restoring Trust: Bridging the Skill Value Gap
Part I [This part of the paper attempts to describe the concepts related to understanding of ethics and the role of mind in propelling ethical or un-ethical behaviour. It also attempts to explain as to how mind is guided by the combination of virtue...
Developing Socio-Political Active Teachers: A Model for Teacher Professional Development
Introduction Today's schools mirror the increasing diversity found across the United States (U's.). In addition to racial and cultural diversity, our schools also experience linguistic diversity. According to the U's. Census, roughly 20% of the...
Differentiation and Diversity in Practising Public Policy-Hindrance or Possibility?
Introduction In 2006 a major investigation was conducted by the Swedish government into discrimination. This investigation included 15 reports by around 100 Swedish researchers and experts on the area called the "Black book on integration". (1)...
Disconnecting Child Pornography on the Internet: Barriers and Policy Considerations
Introduction The Internet has opened a virtual Pandora's box of sexually explicit images, including child pornography. New and improved technologies such as digital cameras and editing software have made it easier to produce and distribute child...
Diversity-A Challenge to the Scandinavian Care Regime?
Introduction (1) The Scandinavian welfare model is often described as one of the most generous welfare systems in the world. Universal services such as child care, public health, education and social services are financed by high tax levels. The...
Drifting Away from Nature: The Cost of Convenience
Introduction The alarming increase in the incidence of obesity over the last several decades has justifiably become fodder for copious research concerning human dietary and behavioral patterns, genetic predispositions, and economic policies that...
Economic Freedom, Larger Freedoms and State Intervention
Economic Freedom, Larger Freedoms and State Intervention 1. Introduction The past three decades have seen an unprecedented and a dramatic reduction in extreme poverty. Spearheaded by progress in China and India, many in the world have been able...
Educational Decisions about the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act
Introduction No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, proposed in 2002, was designed mainly with the laudable goal to help those students who were historically underserved, namely children with special needs/disabilities, those from economically disadvantaged...
Ethical Transparency and Government Regulation of Canada's Medical Research Industry
I. The Medicalization of Society Medicalization is a social process where the medical profession extends its authority over matters not directly concerned with the analysis and treatment of biophysical disorders. In this definition, the medical...
Everyday Well-Being in Connection with Health in Immigrant Families with Children-A Study on the Everyday Life of Families with Russian Background in Finland
Introduction This study discusses the everyday well-being and health in families with children with Russian background from the presumption that the everyday well-being is reflective of how families express their satisfaction with their current...
Expanding Citizens' Democratic Participation as the Context for Earning the Public's Trust
Introduction Trust is an essential component of interactions among individuals in social and political settings. Without adequate levels of trust, relations among individuals would become unhealthy, dysfunctional, strained, unequal, abusive, and...
Federalism, Intergovernmentalism, and Intelligence: The Future of Cooperation in the European Union
Introduction In development of a joint (multinational) and fused (combined) cross-border intelligence product among national institutions, what role does the governance system of government play in establishing cooperative regimes in a large scale...
Gender Equality and the Economic Empowerment of Women
Introduction Much of the feminist debate at the international level concerns the issue of human rights. In so far as human rights promote the fair and equal treatment of individuals regardless of gender, class, race, ethnicity, sexuality, and religious...
Gender Perspectives: The Key to Understanding Equality and Justice
Gendered Equality and Justice Since the modern approach has offered minimal solution to the current social problems involving women and the recent literature seem devoid of cultural competence, we may examine and retrieve the old wisdom of moral...
Genes Load the Gun, the Environment Pulls the Trigger: Obesity among Children and Adolescents in U.S. Schools
"When the world was a simpler place, the rich were fat, the poor were thin, and right-thinking people worried about how to feed the hungry. Now the rich are thin, the poor are fat, and right-thinking people are worrying about obesity.--The Economist,...
Google, Inc.: Procurer, Possessor, Distributor, Aider and Abettor in Child Pornography
Introduction Much has been written in the past couple of years regarding search engine companies' responsibilities associated with the delivery of content to the Internet community. Google in particular has been the focus of much of this attention...
Higher Education for Women in India-Choices and Challenges
Introduction Developmental policies and programmes that do not address gender disparities miss critical developmental opportunities. Education of girls is vital not only on grounds of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation....
Identity Crime: The Need for an Appropriate Government Strategy
1. Introduction This paper investigates essential components for a robust strategy to combat identity crime in cyberspace for governments. The term 'cyberspace' was coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer". Our scope defines cyberspace...
Individual and Institutional Impediments to Ethics: Making Ethical Decisions under Risk, Threat, and Stress
Introduction Kurzban and Houser (2005) report considerable success in accurately predicting the level of cooperation in groups. The key to this success (and the direction of the research in the area) is in analyzing the psychological characteristics...
Individualism as a Solution for Gender Equality in Japanese Society in Contrast to the Social Structure in the United States
Is Japanese Society based on Collectivism or Individualism? (Triandis 1995) defines collectivism as a social pattern consisting of closely linked individuals who see themselves as separate and yet collective part of a company, family, or nation....
Integration and Public Health: Swedish Experiences of Measures for Better Integration and Public Health
Introduction Sweden enjoys a standard of living, life expectancy and health status that is among the highest in the world. In the year 2007 life expectancy was 83 years for women and 79 years for men and Sweden's health system is one of the nation's...
International Considerations in Libel Jurisdiction
International Considerations in Libel Jurisdiction Introduction International considerations in libel jurisdiction constitute an increasingly important and controversial topic as more and more individuals and media outlets post information on Web...
In the Danger: Self Censorship, the Propaganda Model, and the Saving Grace
Neil Postman, writing before the internet, described Americans as follows: "Americans are the best entertained and quite likely the least well-informed people in the Western world." (1) Postman's argument was that even ostensibly serious arenas, such...
Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students
1. Introduction Doing fieldwork, analyzing data and publishing papers in learned journals should not be our only preoccupation as linguists. Our social responsibility demands that we look beyond the classroom to see how we can empower...
Multicultralism: Bridging Ethnicity, Culture, Religion and Race
Introduction Before Trudeau's 1971 announcement on bilingualism and multiculturalism, studies focused on British and French charter group relations, and assimilation of others to these dominant languages and cultures (Driedger, 2000). During the...
Obesity and Cancer: How Understanding the Connection Early Can Have an Impact on Prevention
Introduction When cells proliferate without restraints, there is development of cancer. Increased risk of cancer is observed in overweight children. However, the underlying cause and mechanism are unclear [1]. Thus, there is urgent need to investigate...
Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Risk Factor in African Diets
Introduction Once thought to be a problem of developed countries, the epidemic of obesity and its associated chronic diseases is now growing in the developing world as well. This is influenced by the dietary and lifestyle changes that accompany...
Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society
Introduction Obesity has been shown to be associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) in industrialized, developed nations. Overwhelming evidence has been demonstrated in the United States (Albrigth et al. 2005; Bove and Olson 2006; Estabrooks...
Obstacles to Gender Parity in Engineering Education
Introduction Traditionally low enrolment rates of women in engineering programs in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and the European Union have been accounted for by what can be termed a Western women in engineering meta-narrative....
Overcoming Cynicism Amidst Ethical Lapses in American Government and the News Business
This paper examines how the free press theories espoused by John Milton and Thomas Jefferson have been undermined not only by ethical lapses in American government but also by the evolution of news media organizations into corporate entities that pursue...
Physical Activity for Persons with Obesity-A Health Project Reported
Introduction Increased physical activity habits and fitness (aerobic and strength capacities) are positively-related factors for promoting health and preventing and treating diseases / problems, including metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, several...
Positioning Women, Mental Health and Depression on Canadian Health Care Agendas
"I'd had a miscarriage which caused me to have a breakdown. I didn't know it was a breakdown but I went to my doctor and explained how I felt. He said there was nothing he could do for me, he had all these patients to see and perhaps the nurse could...
Protecting the Vulnerable from the Vulnerable: Child Protection and Diversity
Introduction In setting legislation for the protection of children within Ontario the government walks a tight rope; on the one hand it must ensure that children are not subject to abuse or neglect, at the same time it must ensure that concerns...
Public Policy Issues Surrounding Online University Courses
Introduction Copyright law in the United States today is governed by the Copyright Act of 976. (1) Under that law works put into a tangible form are automatically given a statutorily created copyright for the life of the author plus 70 years. If...
Race, the Enduring Power of an Illusion in a "Color-Blind" Society
"We Don't See Things and then Define Them, We Define Them First And Then We See Them "--Walter Lippmann On July 4, 1992 Justice Thurgood Marshall gave a speech that questioned the progress of race relations since the Brown Decision of 1954. Justice...
Reflections on EFL Proficiency Requirements in the Business Context: Towards Bilingualism in Professional Education in Finland
1. Introduction Lingua francas, common languages, can be assumed to have existed since the times humans started to communicate through speaking 40 000 years ago. (1) Their development seems to fluctuate with economic power; this explains the role...
Rethinking the Moral Agenda within American Foreign Policy: Lessons from Niebuhr, Huntington, and the Japanese Experience
Introduction: Dissonance and American Foreign Policy When Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay in 1853, the Japanese people suffered a cultural shock that was roughly the equivalent of the shock that the American people suffered on 9/11....
Socially Responsible Future Businesspeople: Is There a Road Map?
Introduction Criticism has been always surrounded business schools, focusing mainly on their weakness to address the 'gap' between what the market actually requires, in terms of knowledge, skills, and capabilities and those provided to business...
Social Psychology of Culture and Ethnic Populations: The Impact of Global Warming on Social Change within Culture and Ethnicity
Introduction Our planet is in a state of strife and crisis from a number of fronts. This paper examines the Social Psychology of Culture and Ethnic Populations, examining particularly a subtopic of that topic of great interest world-wide, global...
Spanish-English or English-Spanish in California: The Dialectics of Language in a Sociocultural Historical Context
Introduction In present day California schooling and bilingualism as opposing mechanisms, can be discerned as social political constructs that has existed since the formal institutions of schooling in English were implemented in California (1849-50)....
Speech Deposit: Systematic Approach to Free Speech and Responsibility
1. Introduction The most dramatic change of the world in the last decade is the spread of internet technology. Owing to this technological progress the amount of information people can access has increased dramatically. Before the surge of the internet...
Strategies for Improving Ethical Behaviors in Organizations
Introduction Ethics is the study of morality. It is the value that is worth pursuing in life. It is honorable behavior. Ethics is relative. What is honorable in one society may not be honorable in another. It depends on several factors: world views,...
Synopolies: The Use of Cryptographic Technologies to Impede Competition in Multiple Jurisdictions
Part I--Introduction Modern technology is rarely developed in a vacuum. (2) That is, only in exceptional circumstances is a technology developed that is not dependent upon or related to an existing technology. (3) More commonly new technology builds...
Tackling Endemic Substance Abuse among Indigenous Australians: The Contribution of Values-Based Family Empowerment Education
Introduction My introduction to indigenous health in central Australia from the early '90s was, and in many ways still is, a shock about the white-black divide. Having spent most of my community development life working with my own people in Ghana...
The Aesthetics of Online Privacy: Do We Communicate Context through Interface Design?
Introduction In recent years, the intersection between privacy and new technologies continues to be a critical area of controversy and debate in American political and cultural discussions. Thousands of books related to privacy are released every...
The Benevolent Legal Ethic of Adam Smith Merges with Nobel Laureate R.H. Coase's Benevolent Legal Ethic
I. Introduction After writing "The Classical Economic Model and the Nature of Property in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries" (1) Adam Smith's ideas have never left my thinking. Upon reading Coase's 1937 article, "The Nature of the Firm," (2)...
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act: An Effective Tool for Prosecuting Criminal and Civil Actions in Cyberspace
Introduction Although hackers have been around for over 40 years, by the 1980s the problem had reached epidemic proportions. "Hacker" is the term used for people who gain unauthorized access to another's computer for the purpose of stealing or corrupting...
The Intersection of School Desegregation and Economic Globalization in America
Introduction Public education in America continues to be view as being worthy of major investments to improve the county's economic position in the world. But quality education for many Americans is still not within their reach (1). Fifty years...
The Responsible Corporation Syndrome
Dimensions of the corporate social responsibility The essence of the social responsibility of business organisations can be captured as four elements. The first is the role of the whole business community, in that its capacity to produce income...
The South African English Language Scene within a (Global) Holographic Triadic Context
Introduction The main focus of this paper is on the triangulated work of the 1996 South African Constitution, the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB), and one of the latter's eleven subsidiaries: the English National Language Body (ENLB),...
The Times They Are A-Changin' (Every Six Months)-The Challenges of Regulating Developing Technologies
1. Introduction "Imagine there's no countries" is one of the first propositions in John Lennon's immortal classic titled Imagine. (1) For a period of time, the Internet made such a dream seem like a real possibility--we have had a virtually borderless...
Trust within Organizations-Benefiting from Demographic Changes by Fostering Intra-Organizational Trust
Introduction Trust has been a topic of great importance to researchers from different scientific disciplines such as sociology (e.g., Coleman, 1990), psychology (e.g., Colquitt, Scott, & LePine 2007, 909-927), and economics (e.g., Williamson...
Watch That Gap: Reflections on the Struggle for Equality
In this paper in my attempt to begin a conversation about ways to negotiate that mysterious gap between hope and happening (1) that is so often the stuff of policy change, I'll be considering the thinking and activism of two quite different women from...
Who Is Safe in This Harbor? Rethinking Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act
Legislative bodies and courts have long struggled to reconcile two sometimes conflicting interests: the state's interest in protecting the reputations of its citizens and society's interest in free and robust debate. For example, the constitutional...