Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table

Articles from Winter

A Comprehensive System of School Reform Based on Student Results
Abstract School reform is achieved through the collaboration and coordination among educators with the mutual goal of improved learning for all students. Given the complexity within and among educational systems, the need to develop and implement...
A Critical Analysis of Gender-Based Workplace Challenges Facing Women: Gender and Compensation
Abstract : This paper explores workplace challenges that women face and recommends strategies to address them through 1) research, and 2) policy at organizational and governmental levels. Discrimination against women manifests itself in various...
Aging-in-Place: Present Realities and Future Directions
Abstract Elderly populations are growing globally, due in large part to increasing longevity (United Nations 2002). With the number of moderately or severely disabled older persons in the United States predicted to increase by as much as 350% in...
America's Changing Views of China: Through the Eyes of Janus
Abstract The history of United States' relations with China began within five years of the founding of the United States. From our first contacts in 1784, until today, our image and thus our relations with China have followed a dualistic pattern....
Ancient Paradigms and Modern Expectations: Is the United States Acting like a Normal State?
Abstract Not since the Roman Empire has any nation had as much economic, cultural and military power as the United States does today. In light of the session's concern to appreciate the relevance of history to understanding current international...
Application of the Epidemiological Model: Community-Based Interventions for the Management of Obesity in Children and Young Adults
Abstract Healthy People 2010 identifies that one of the ten leading health indicators representative of the relative state of health of Americans is overweight and obesity (www.healthypeople.gov). The Institute for Medicine (IOM, 2005) has identified...
Approaching a Possible Redefinition of the Arts and Sciences: The Union of the Two Cultures (with a Special Emphasis on the Discipline of Music)
Abstract Emerging from our scientific-technological societies, scientific and artistic disciplines are creating a new environment, based on a new art and new or renewed sciences. The phenomenon has risen through a widening of horizons, expanding...
Art: A Constituent in Orders of Science
Abstract Since the last century, there has been at virtually all levels of formal learning an increasingly imbalanced funding of art and science fields of study in the United States. From the look of things, science has been misappropriated to the...
A View from the Trenches: Arts as an Institutional Requirement
Abstract Life has become infinitely more complicated, time increasingly precious and society increasingly visual. In higher education we seem to be doing more with less, producing greater amounts of data to support the validity of the work and courses...
Blackstone's Canvas of Influence Redux: Did He Contribute to the Construction of Ethics in American Education Law?
Abstract How a business does what it does (process) is as important as the product made or the services delivered. Executives recently have tended to focus exclusively on profits and neglect principles, to the overall detriment of society and the...
Black Women Writers as Dynamic Agents of Change: Empowering Women from Africa to America
Abstract Black women have a long history and tradition of activism that can be traced to pre-colonial Africa. Women of African descent who are writers have challenged the status quo in the cultural, political, and spiritual realms of their communities...
Bridging the Abyss
Abstract This paper seeks to explain the epistemological bases for the two cultures and to show why this disciplinary divide continues to plague American academic culture. Next, we discuss strategies for bridging the two cultures through general...
Bridging the Two Cultures: Disciplinary Divides and Educational Reward Systems
Abstract In 1959 C.P. Snow believed that communication and education could span the cultural gap between the sciences and the humanities. In the twenty-first century, language, research models, and academic structures hinder intellectual communication...
Bridging the Two Cultures: The Case of Science and Natural History Filmmaking
Abstract At Montana State University's Master of Fine Arts program in Science and Natural History Filmmaking, our goal is to re-invent these areas of documentary by admitting students with undergraduate science degrees and teaching them both production...
Bridging "The Two Cultures" through Aesthetic Education: Considering Visual Art, Science, and Imagination
Abstract Art can be used to enrich the subject of science and science can be used to motivate study in art. This can stimulate new ways to regard the relationship of art and science in classrooms. Theoretical and practical examples will highlight:...
"Can We 'Teach Them to Elect Good Men'? the Application of Military Force in Mexico and Iraq"
Abstract The use of force has frequently accompanied U.S. efforts to export democracy and accomplish cultural change. Parallels drawn from a comparison of the American intervention in Mexico during the Woodrow Wilson administration to today's American...
Caregiving to Aging Parents
Abstract It is a well-established fact that the United States is an aging society. Increasing longevity and life expectancy has increased the number of elderly persons with chronic health conditions who are in need of special social services and...
Categorizing Language as Curriculum and Instruction: Implications for Teaching English Language Learners
Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze what a group teachers say to English Language Learners as part of the curriculum and instruction, and to categorize the comments along the lines of scientific curriculum inquiry. Observations and...
China's Economic Development from 1860 to the Present: The Roles of Sovereignty and the Global Economy
Abstract: Radically different consequences flowed from China's interaction with the global economy during two periods, from 1860 to 1949, and from 1949 to the present. From 1860 to 1949, China's economy stagnated. From 1949 to the present, China's...
Contesting Patriarchy: Granddaughters Fight Back
Abstract This paper argues that colonial policies discriminating against Native women, as well as defining and circumscribing Native rights and identity, continue to cast a long shadow over the cultural and socio-economic landscape on First Nations...
Cultural Synthesis in Research Pedagogy: The Puzzle of George Crabbe's "The Voluntary Insane"
Abstract One of the most direct approaches to addressing perceptions of a lack of disciplinary communication in higher education between the humanities/arts and the sciences, both social sciences and natural sciences, may be to encourage educators...
Definitions and Disasters: What Hurricane Katrina Revealed about Women's Rights
Abstract The decisions made in the 1930s following the passage of women's suffrage reflected definitions of equality that had been accepted by both women's rights activists and labor progressives. These decisions constructed rights to government...
Distinguishing Sources of L2 Development Problems in K-12: Language Deficit, Cognitive Deficit, and Cognitive Distance
Abstract K-12 students with limited L2 proficiency who do not progress satisfactorily are often referred to special education and/or speech pathology services. Like the teachers who refer such students, the representatives of each service have a...
Diversity and Public Policy in Relation to the Special Case of Intercountry Adoption
Abstract Today over 40,000 children annually move among more than 100 countries through the mechanism of intercountry adoption. This paper examines this phenomenon with respect to how it impacts diversity and public policy. First, it creates unique...
Evolution Is Not the Enemy; Intelligent Design Is Not the Solution
Abstract There is a need to intelligently bridge the gap between religious fundamentalists and the scientific community. The bridge is the existence of nine phenomena that suggest that the universe is more than just a random accident; that in actuality...
Failing to Heed Blackstone: A 50 Year Review of Tougher Sentences for Impaired Driving in Canada and How the Judiciary Strives to Avoid Their Imposition
I. Introduction More than 200 years ago, Sir William Blackstone recognized that: We may observe that punishments of unreasonable severity, especially when indiscriminately inflicted, have less effect in preventing crimes, and amending...
From Blackstone's Common Law Duty of Parents to Educate Their Children to a Constitutional Right of Parents to Control the Education of Their Children
Abstract Blackstone's Commentaries stated that the common law imposed a duty on parents to provide for the maintenance, protection, and education of their children, and of these, the duty to provide an education was "of far the greatest importance."...
From Outside-In to Inside-Out: Rethinking the Two Cultures and the Contribution of C. P. Snow
Abstract The publication in 1959 of the University of Cambridge Rede Lecture by C. P. Snow, entitled The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, is justly remembered for the considerable stir it caused. Sir Charles' account of the growing communication...
Frontiers, Empires, and the New World: The Significance of the Frontier in American Foreign Policy
Abstract The late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century frontier profoundly shaped American cultural values and political institutions, and continues to influence the way most Americans look at the world. Studies of how Americans dealt with their...
Global Competition and Learning Organizations: Goals and Motivations of Corporate Leaders and Employees Who Participate in Corporate/university Partnerships
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine executive and employee attitudes regarding benefits and difficulties accruing to employees and their corporations who participate in on-site MBA programs for 11 corporate partners. Because so many...
Globalization (1) and Media: Do Twentieth-Century Concepts Remain Relevant?
Abstract 'Historical understanding of the emergence of modern media provides a basis for envisaging alternatives in commercialized, globalized era': on the eve of 'September 11' a colleague and I concluded a book on media and society in the twentieth...
How Would Blackstone Teach Today's Law Students with Learning Disabilities?: A Proposal
Abstract Although Sir William Blackstone would not have known if he had been lecturing to students with learning disabilities, today's law professors are. Law schools are legally required to accommodate students with learning disabilities unless...
Humanities & Arts to the Rescue of Science
Abstract The future of science may depend on how education responds to the growing negativism that students and the public show towards science. What is the value of our current teaching methods, if in helping students achieve higher test scores,...
Interconnectedness and Women's Leadership: Disability Rights through the Lenses of Emancipatory Spirituality and Liberatory Theology
Abstract While "women's leadership" may seem, at first glance, to be incongruous to the subject of disability rights through the lenses of emancipatory spirituality, chaos theory and wisdom traditions, just the opposite is true. Chaos theory, with...
Intersections of Identity: Navigating the Complexities
Abstract Much of the multicultural literature is dominated by theoretical concepts and research related to racial identity. This line of research and scholarly discussion has provided a significant contribution to the understanding of racial factors...
Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community...
Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System
Introduction As a judge, I was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did...
Lessons from the Round Table: Literacy Professionals Find Common Ground in Oxford
Abstract In July, 2006, Literacy Professionals from across the United States met at Lady Margaret College in Oxford University to discuss research and practice in the teaching of reading and the expansion of literacy. In a tense national climate,...
Minding the Gap-Artists as Scientists, Scientists as Artists: Some Solutions to Snow's Dilemma
Abstract It seems to be the curse of our times to think in terms of either-or. C.P. Snow directly addressed this in The Two Cultures (1964, 63-64): "I want to repeat what was intended to be my main message .that neither the scientific system of...
Movements of Peoples and the Genesis of "Soviet Spaces"
Abstract The Soviet Union was mysterious for so long in part because it was closed to most outsiders. In retrospect, Soviet Power is remarkable because of the way it organized and commanded its sequestered space. This paper tries to explain how...
Obesity and the Healthcare Professions: Cooperation or Assimilation?
Abstract Obesity is an epidemic in developed countries. Its ramifications range from cardiovascular disease to cancer to musculo-skeletal disorders. The causes of obesity are not solely biological, as the brief time frame toward the current epidemic...
Of Blind Men and Elephants: Some Thoughts on a Learning-Centered Approach for Bridging the Gulf between the Arts and Sciences
Abstract More than forty-five years after the publication of C.P. Snow's essay on The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, the "gulf of understanding" he described between scholars in the sciences and humanities appears to have grown ever...
Older Than Snow: The Two Cultures and the Yale Report of 1828
Abstract C.P. Snow's The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution represents the most famous reincarnation of a debate concerning the clash of academic cultures in higher education. This essay explores the similarities and differences in the circumstances...
Overcoming Visible and Not So Visible Barriers to Women's Leadership in the Roman Catholic Church in the United States
Abstract In the 21st century, Catholic women and the Roman Catholic Church are finding themselves meeting at a crossroad that is fraught with ambiguity. It is a challenging crossroad full of both potential and frustration. The women gathering at...
Petit Apartheid in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands: An Analysis of Community Organization Data Documenting Work Force Abuses of the Undocumented
Abstract In this paper, the data gathered in 2004 and 2005 by the Coalicion de Derechos Humanos (Derechos), a Tucson Arizona community-based human rights organization is summarized and analyzed within the framework of 'Petit Apartheid.' The organization...
Philosophers and Technologists: Vicarious and Virtual Knowledge Constructs
Abstract In an age of continual technological advancement, user-friendly software, and consumer demand for the latest upgraded gadget, the ethical and moral discoveries derived from a careful reading of any fictional literature by college students...
Piety, Pageantry and Politics on the Northern Great Plains: An American Indian Woman Restages Her People's Conquest during the Era of Assimilation (1879-1934)
Abstract A study of the early career of Dakota Sioux scholar Ella Cara Deloria (1889-1971). Better known male figures in her family, forced to relinquish their traditional leadership roles, strategically extended these by converting to Christianity...
Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia
Abstract The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization...
Public Financing of Religious Schools: James G. Blaine and Justice Clarence Thomas' 'Bigotry Thesis
Abstract United States Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas writing for a plurality of the Court in Mitchell v. Helms in 2000 advanced the idea that state constitutional prohibitions against public funding of religious schools were manifestations...
Quantitative Literacy: A Means for Bridging the Chasm of the Two Cultures
Abstract Quantitative literacy (QL), a relatively new literacy, has the potential to bridge the gap between the literary and scientific cultures. The chasm of the two cultures refers to the gulf and increased polarization between scientists (science)...
Relational Psychopathologies of Adult Children of Alcoholics
Abstract Reports of clinical observations have suggested that Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACAs) frequently experience difficulties with intimacy in adult relationships. Problems with relatedness are assumed to originate in the family of origin...
Religion, Education and the Role of Government in Old Tibet
Abstract In speaking of "old Tibet" I mean to refer to Tibet prior to the Tibetan diaspora of 1959 or most certainly to the Tibet that was prior to the invasion by the Communist Chinese in the late 1940's and early 1950's. In old Tibet, to a great...
Security and International Relations in the 21st Century: United States' Continuum of Counterinsurgency: Anti-Communism to Anti-Terrorism
Abstract This article describes the perspective, context and meaning of the global war on terrorism though an examination of prior counterinsurgency efforts by the United States. To do so, this manuscript surveys the foundations of such efforts,...
Societal Cultural Competence and Cultural Community Well-Being
Abstract This paper introduces the concept Societal Cultural Competence (SCC) from the perspective that cultural competence is experienced or displayed on a day-to-day basis when people from different ethnic/racial backgrounds as well as cultural...
Stability and Continuity in Normal Emotional Development between Infancy and Early Childhood: Longitudinal Research
Abstract In a longitudinal study, twenty subjects were introduced to twelve stimuli as infants (seven to thirteen months old) and twelve similar stimuli when they were preschoolers in early childhood (three through five years old). Video recordings...
Teaching Geosciences in Mississippi
Abstract Historically, two paths have developed in an individual and communal search for understanding and meaning: The study of science and the search for a higher spirituality. Although they should not necessarily be mutually exclusive, the history...
The Academic Climate of Women Faculty in Faith-Based Institutions of Higher Learning
Abstract The unequal status of women professors, compared to their male counterparts, is not staggering news. While women constitute approximately sixty percent of the undergraduate population and earn more than half the doctorates in the United...
The Arabic Story: Mirror of a Culture a Curriculum for the West
Abstract For so long the Americans did not see the need to learn a foreign language. They did not perceive this dire need. Speaking a language is not about making a noise of different sounds. It is about culture, mannerism, history, literature,...
The Creation of a Subculture: The Decline of the Arts in a Society Dominated by Technology, Science, and Economics
Abstract The concept of two cultures recognized by Charles Percy Snow (1) may have implications beyond a lack of understanding and respect between two conflicting worlds of intellectuals. This widening chasm in the United States affects the education...
The Development of Technology-Based Counseling Strategies to Enhance Outreach to Parents and Students
Abstract This paper presents a program for counseling students enrolled in an online charter school located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The author presents a review of the process to establish an online school in Nevada and a unique model for delivery...
The Effects of Mediated Learning Strategies on Teacher Practice and on Students at Risk of Academic Failure
Abstract The purpose of this case study was to determine the effects of Reuven Feuerstein's ten Mediated Learning Strategies on both teacher practice and on students that were at risk of academic failure. Changes in both teacher practice and student...
The Gap Narrows in Fine Art: Modernism and Women Artists
Abstract The paper expounds on the matrix engaging science and art through the culture of visual fine arts. By sourcing the movement of Modernism at the turn of the century a social attitude is revealed, which focuses on the communication potency...
The Identification, Assessment, and Amelioration of Barriers to America's Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory
Abstract The scientific community is in near universal agreement as to the importance of an understanding of evolutionary principles as the unifying theme for the appropriation of the origin, history, and diversity of life on our planet. Yet despite...
The Impact of a Gender Shift on a Profession: Women in Pharmacy
Abstract The face of pharmacy is changing as more women make up the ranks of the pharmacy profession. Women have been graduating from colleges and schools of pharmacy at a higher rate than men for over 20 years and men are retiring at a faster rate...
The Impact of Immigration on Bilingualism among Indigenous American Peoples
Abstract Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's,...
The Impact of Policy Driven Professional Development on Emergent Literacy Instruction
Abstract Professional development that increases quality classroom instruction is a concern of school administrators and professional educators. Using survey, observation, and interview methods, four rural schools in the Upper Cumberland area of...
The Legal Mind and Integrity in the Workplace: Principled Prerequisites for Statesmanship in Leadership
Abstract How a business does what it does (process) is as important as the product made or the services delivered. Executives recently have tended to focus exclusively on profits and neglect principles, to the overall detriment of society and the...
The Link between Healthcare, Sexuality, and Successful Aging
"If I knew I was going to live this long, I would have taken better care of myself." Legendary ragtime piano player Eubie Blake, on his 100th birthday Abstract The general topic is Successful Aging, an issue that has intrigued, puzzled, and...
The Modern American "Widow," the Church and the Formation of Public Policy
Abstract Recent years have witnessed a proliferation in the number of U. S. households declaring personal bankruptcy. Studies show that the vast majority of these bankruptcies stem not from excessive or wasteful spending, but financial crises brought...
The Reagan Administration, the United Nations & Human Rights
Abstract The literature is dominated by a paradigm suggesting that the administration of Ronald Reagan was very poor with respect to the advocacy and promotion of international human rights. The "turnaround thesis" contends that only at the end...
The Relationship between Paternal Involvement and Child Outcomes in Male African American Youth
Abstract Studies have shown that children living in homes without fathers are likely to be subject to more deleterious effects than those in intact families. Few studies, however, have evaluated the specific impact of father absence in prepubescent...
The Relationship between Teacher Assessments and NCLB Mathematics Testing
Abstract This study examined the relationship between teacher assessments and grade eight New Jersey NCLB mathematics testing. It also examined how curricular changes affected student achievement for one New Jersey junior high school on the NCLB...
'The Rich and the Poor': Eradicating Hunger in a "Global" Economy
Abstract This paper seeks to bring the Snow-Leavis controversy up-to-date, that is, to apply it to our contemporary world. The arguments of two contemporary authors, Jeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities of Our Time. New York:...
The Science-Faith Debate in Higher Education
Abstract A voluntary survey regarding beliefs on evolution, and creation and ethics was developed and administered on-line from June through July 2006 to over 100 students, faculty, and staff at a mid-sized public university in the Midwestern United...
The Third Culture-A Conversation about Truth and Reconciliation: An African Americanist's Reflection on the "Two Cultures" Debate in Post-Modern Society
Abstract C. P. Snow launched the "Two Cultures" debate in 1959 during the Cold War era. While lamenting a widening gulf in communication between scientists and literary theorists, he championed the supremacy of scientific inquiry over canonical...
"The Three Literacy Gaps and Title III of NCLB"
Abstract No Child Left Behind (NCLB) attempts to ensure educational equity for all K-12 students. However, for the conceptual goals of NCLB to become reality, pre-service teacher training models must be modified to include a deeper understanding...
The Two Cultures and the Crisis in the Humanities
Abstract The debate over the crisis in the humanities has focused on several disparate problems but failed to illuminate their underlying ground. To understand the crisis we have to understand the genealogy of the university and the origin of the...
"The Two Cultures" and the Historical Perspective on Science as a Culture
Abstract In the Rede lecture of 1959, C.P. Snow speaks in terms of two cultures, one of science, the other of literary intellectuals. Snow's discussion presupposes that science represents a culture of its own, independent of and superior to the...
The Two Cultures: A Zero-Sum Game?
Abstract In The two cultures and the scientific revolution, C.P. Snow (1959) described the chasm between pure and applied science, on the one hand, and the arts and humanities, on the other. Snow was concerned that the complete lack of understanding...
The Two Cultures: The Literary Moderns Revisited
Abstract Leading from C.P.Snow's comments in his Rede Lecture of 1959, regarding "self-impoverishment" on the part of both scientists and literary intellectuals,this essay begins by examining texts by two of the writers in question: "The Waste Land",...
The United States and Coalition Building in the New International Order
Abstract In the new international order of the post-Cold War, post-9/11 world, the United States, now the hyperpower of the world, has embarked upon a unilateralist policy in defense of its national security interests. Such an approach is flawed...
The Untold Story: African American Women Administrators' Alchemy of Turning Adversity into Gold
Abstract As we approach the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, the globalization and privatization of the academy is destabilizing the patterns of university professional work developed over the past hundred years (Slaughter and...
Time Well Spent: Phonemic Awareness Training or Paired Associate Learning for Children with Language Impairments?
Abstract This paper addresses several inconsistencies in the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia in relation to children with language impairments. Results from studies in the reading and language literature inform readers of the critical elements...
Toward a Synthesis of Science and Theatre Arts
Abstract The chasm between science the the arts has been hotly debated during the last century. History reveals that science and theatre arts (drama and dance) have shared a successful symbiosis that has benefited society for at least two millennia....
Towards a Model of Literacy Learning for Young Augmented Speakers
Abstract The study investigates strategies and contexts for supporting the literacy development of young, augmented speakers, whose difficulties in literacy learning are not explained by their levels of cognition alone. Indeed, quantitative and...
Translating Basic Research into Community Practice: The Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging (CITRA)
Abstract The mission of Cornell University's Edward R. Roybal Center, the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging (CITRA) is to develop new ways to translate the findings of basic social science research into programs and policies...
Use of the Rule of Law to Take the Measure of HIV/aids
Abstract The author describes his role in the case of the State of Illinois vs. Timothy Lunsford, the first case to attack the constitutionality of discriminatory HIV criminal statutes appealed to the Illinois and United States Supreme Courts. Legal...
Violence and End-Time Theologies: The Search for a Responsible Eschatology
Abstract This paper explores the apocalyptic dimension of eschatology within Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In its consideration of the intersection between religion and terrorism, the author finds that under certain conditions of stress eschatological...