Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table

Articles from Fall

Abbas Raptus: Exploring Factors That Contribute to the Sexual Abuse of Females in Rural Mormon Fundamentalist Communities
Abstract This paper traces the causes of the sexual abuse of females, particularly father-perpetrated rape, in rigid patriarchal communities in Montana, Mexico, and Utah. Based on 15 years of research among fundamentalists in the Intermountain West...
A Biblical World View in Support of the Worth of Women's Work
Abstract Scripture and false science have been used for many years to discourage women from reaching their full potential in the world of work. Perceptions that women were not fit to be educated arose in the culture of Old Testament times and continued...
A Critical Analysis of the Child and Adolescent Wellness Scale (CAWS)
Abstract Current practice for assessing children and adolescents rely on objectively scored deficit-based models and/or informal assessments to determine how maladaptive behaviors affect performance. Social-emotional assessment instruments are used...
Adult Second Language Reading in the USA: The Effects of Readers' Gender and Test Method
Abstract Bernhardt (2003) claims that half of the variance in second language (L2) reading is accounted for by first language literacy (20%) and second language knowledge (30%), and that one of the central goals of current L2 reading research should...
A Perspective: Organizational and Procedural Norms and the Authority of the Magisterium in the Catholic Church
Abstract The Roman Catholic Church governance structures are frequently not understood, misunderstood, or perceived to be mysterious in nature. There are specific Post Conciliar documents, resulting from the work of the Vatican II Council (1962-1965)...
Being Black, or Being a Cop: The Problem of Race in American Law Enforcement (1)
Introduction Police misconduct dates back three centuries (Skolnick, 1966; Niederhoffer, 1967). According to Johnson (2001) and Johnson and Cox (2004/2005), over several decades, various structural, organizational and socio-professional methods...
Beyond Darwin: Systems Dynamics Issues in Adaptation and Speciation
Abstract Darwin had only the merest physical access to the work of Mendel (which he did not apply to his theory or mechanisms). Nor did he have access to present-day concepts of adaptation, nor of the systems dynamics of Prigogene, the memes of...
Bilingualism, Cultural Transmutation, and Fields of Coexistence: California's Spanish Language Legacy
Abstract This is an historical analysis of English Only programs in California and their impact on bilingualism as a natural acquisition process. Factors that propagate bilingualism such as a continual flow of Spanish speaking immigrants, and social,...
Bridging the Gap between Science and Faith through Environmental Studies: Theoretical Considerations and Implications for Environmental Policy and Practice
Abstract The metaphysical implications of some of the scientific advances of the twentieth century have been under-appreciated to a considerable degree in terms of their potential to provide a theoretical bridge between science-based and faith-based...
Calories and Longevity: Do They Really Matter?
Abstract Calorie restriction extends the life span of laboratory animals, and now scientists are beginning to discover the molecular basis for this phenomenon. The findings so far indicate that there are genes that respond to stressors (like calorie...
Chronic Pain in Cognitively Impaired Elderly: Challenges in Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Abstract One of the greatest challenges facing health care today is the provision of proper pain management in elderly patients suffering from both acute and chronic pain. The task of caring for suffering individuals is magnified when those patients...
Darwin versus Intelligent Design in US Courts: Does Teaching Intelligent Design in Biology Classes Violate the US Constitution?
Abstract Darwinian evolution is accepted by the great majority of scientists as the method by which the diversity of earth's organisms, including humans, evolved. Current research continues to expand our knowledge of evolutionary mechanisms. However,...
Dry Edible Beans: Indigenous Staple and Healthy Cuisine
Abstract The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse food resource of high nutritional value (protein, energy, fiber and vitamins and minerals) with broad social acceptance. This agricultural legume crop demonstrates global adaptability,...
Exercise Testing and Prescription in the Enhancement of Physiologic and Overall Well Being in the Older Adult
Abstract Aging is an inevitable process, but the rate and magnitude of the decline in physiologic function may be attenuated by an exercise/activity intervention. The prevalence of chronic disease however increases through the lifespan. Therefore...
Factors That Contribute to, and Constrain, Conversations between Adolescent Females and Their Mothers about Sexual Matters
Abstract This study investigates the factors that contribute to, and constrain, conversations between adolescent females and their mothers about sexual matters. Essential areas of investigation include the role of mother-daughter connectedness and...
From the Trenches: Secondary Content Teachers and IEP, Inclusion Students
Introduction Secondary content teachers want to accommodate their special education students. They know that their classrooms provide the "least restrictive environment" specified by Public Law 94-142. They understand that inclusion is federally...
Integrating Culture into Education: Self-Concept Formation in Alaska Native Youth
Abstract Very few studies have specifically addressed the formation of self-concept in the Alaska Native, or how the relationship between culture and education ultimately impacts its development. Most often, this phenomenon is mentioned in passing...
International Iodine Deficiency
Abstract Iodine is an essential trace element. However, thirty-five percent of the world's population is estimated to live in areas of iodine deficiency. Iodine's only known function is in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, so severe dietary deficiency...
Invisible, Mysterious, and Inconsequential: The Absence of Women in 2004 Presidential Campaign Coverage
Abstract Discussions of leadership and its inherent qualities surface in the United States most visibly every four years during the presidential election. In defining the terms, tone, and parameters, the news media set the public's agenda in these...
Islamic Schools in America: Islam's Vehicle to the Future?
Abstract This paper explores the role of American Muslim schools in shaping and constructing the identity of Muslim children in the U.S., and shows how Muslim organizations and educators are using these schools to (re)Islamize Muslim children. America's...
Is Modern Crime Too Complicated for the Modern Jury?
Over the course of time, human activity has become increasing complicated as we have acquired the means to address our daily needs in more sophisticated ways. Our more complex approach to every day problems manifests itself in everything from the way...
Is Science to Blame for the Intelligent Design Debate?
Abstract The current debate in the United States regarding intelligent design (ID) has been viewed by many scientists as a curious sideshow. We cannot understand how anyone could be deceived into thinking that ID belongs in the scientific realm....
Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Evolution in a Population of Community College Students
Abstract Much attention has been given to the opposition toward the teaching of evolution at the K-12 level and the movement to include alternative theories, such as Intelligent Design (ID), in the science curriculum. However, very little is known...
Lex Sportiva: Thoughts towards a Criminal Law of Competitive Contact
Abstract It sometimes happens that athletes fall to injury rather than superior play. At what point should the criminal law come into play? In a first round National Football League playoff game last season, The Cincinnati Bengals' hopes ended on...
Moving beyond the Noble Cause Paradigm: Providing a Unified Theory of Ethics for 21st Century American Policing
Abstract With the recent emphasis on fighting terrorism added to the traditional police mandate, the police in America face an unprecedented demand on their responsiveness, competence and clarity of purpose. Although the past thirty years have seen...
Perspective Taking in Language Learning and Teaching
Introduction Language is a means by which different minds communicate ideas to one another. It is also a means our minds use to understand ourselves, other people, the world around us, and the relationships among them. In language acquisition, we...
Re-Examining ESL Programs in Public Schools: A Focus on Creole-English Children's Clause-Structuring Strategies in Written Academic Discourse
Abstract The goal of the study was to compare the literacy challenges faced by children who speak nonstandard dialects of English and for whom Standard English is a second dialect with challenges faced by children for whom Standard English is a...
Reflections on the Current Status of Women in American Higher Education
Abstract Since World War II, American women have gained much greater access to higher education, with women now 56% of undergraduates, and approximately half of medical and law school students, as well as attaining 49% of PhD's. Despite their greater...
Roger Williams: Pioneer on America's Journey towards Religious Liberty
Abstract The radical English Puritan Roger Williams (1603 - 1683) lived too early to be a direct influence on the American constitutional ideals of separation of church and state. His life and actions, however, are informative to our understanding...
Science and Religion in Colonial America: The Early Days
Abstract The use of science to validate biblical accounts or prove the existence of God began in the United States with the publication of Cotton Mather's The Christian Philosopher. Cotton Mather is generally remembered for his role in the Salem...
Security, Access, Intellectual Freedom: Achieving Balance in a Global World
Abstract Security, privacy, access, and intellectual freedom are words that are loaded with emotional meaning and context for current societal issues. How do we ensure all without sacrificing or compromising others? Balancing a government's need...
Self and Other: Tensions within Modern Liberal Individualism and Moral Education
Abstract Contemporary moral education of children in America derives from multiple sources including parents, schools, religious institutions, and the media. Thus, children are commonly confronted with inconsistent, perplexing moral demands. This...
Some Eighteenth Century Views of the Relationship of Science to Religion
Abstract During the scientific revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the western world began to perceive reality as, in some way, separate from the self. The kind of truth that was sought prior to Descartes differed from that generally...
Special Education: Examining the Impact of Poverty on the Quality of Life of Families of Children with Disabilities
Abstract Today, school personnel are facing many challenges in their efforts to serve diverse families and children with disabilities. Inadequate human and fiscal capacity, attitudinal and cultural barriers are among the many hurdles that must be...
Stay Smart: Lost Weight: Childhood Obesity and Health Education
Abstract Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has...
Stress and Fatigue in Foreign Language Professionals: Implications for Global Security
Abstract Information critical to the security of nations is embedded in an array of foreign languages. Foreign language professionals must often analyze complex information from different language sources, and the integrity of their analyses can...
The Acoustic Properties of Vowels: A Tool for Improving Articulation and Comprehension of English
Abstract Correct pronunciation is often a later step in the process of teaching English as a second language. However, a focus on the correct articulation of vowels can significantly improve listening and comprehension skills as well as articulatory...
The Dutch Dilemma & American Divide: The Challenge of Exclusivist Religions to Pluralistic States, and Contemporary Education
Abstract Post-Reformation societies and states that thought they had put religious wars behind them have been caught unawares by the vehemence of religious dissent that has exploded in their midst, sometimes literally, since the 1970s. I maintain...
The Grain Chain: Consumption of Whole Grain Foods and Their Many Links to Disease Prevention
Abstract This research paper is intended to raise awareness of the benefits of whole grains in the diet as well as to educate the consumer on how to select whole grain products. Scientific studies are reviewed, and the beneficial effects of human...
The Impact of IDEA 04 and NCLB on Speech and Language Related Services: How Do We Meet the Challenges
Abstract As most special educators endure the periodic legal changes in education and special education, related service providers face the same challenges. These challenges include Inclusion, IDEIA 04 regulations, NCLB and curricular related services....
The Interface of Global Migrations, Local English Language Learning, and Identity Transmutations of the Immigrant Academician
Abstract As global migrations of both teachers and students have increased, so has the need to re-learn English in response to local parlances. Thus, the use of formal and informal language styles, the masking of accents, and the understanding of...
Theology for Citizenship: How a Catholic College in the Augustinian Tradition Prepares Citizens to Transform Society
Abstract: Uses Vatican and papal documents to reflect on the distinctive mission of Catholic colleges and universities in light of their responsibility to prepare students for virtuous citizenship in a religiously and ethnically pluralistic society....
The Project Approach: An Appreciation for the Constructivist Theory
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore my appreciation for the 'constructivist theory' for which an epistemological stance is expressed as an educational ideology, or referred to as constructivism; essentially to construct one's own knowledge....
The Quest for Oil in the New World Order
Are we running out of oil? My research topic, "The Quest for Oil in the New World Order" has provided a better insight on the subject of the availability of oil. The research was a qualitative study. Five subject matter experts in the oil industry...
The Role of Prejudice in the Lack of Effective Response by Western Governments to Refugees in Developing Countries: A Threat to Achieving Human and Global Security
Abstract This paper posits that prejudice plays a significant role in the lack of resolve to develop and implement effective responses by the United States and other western governments to refugee populations in developing countries. This discourse...
The Role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in the Maintenance of the Subjugation of Women: Implications for the Training of Future Mental Health Professionals
Abstract Since the publication of the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1952), the diagnostic classification of mental health issues has been rooted in an individualistic...
The Social Relations of Food
Introduction: the Emerging Sociology and Anthropology of Food. The sociology and anthropology of food have recently become very fashionable places to work, with large volumes of books, articles and papers erupting from the academy. (1) This emerging...
The Technique of Terrorism
Abstract We are living in a radically new age of global terrorism, and we must seek significantly new ways of comprehending its nature and ramifications. In an effort to overcome some of the traditional obstacles to defining and understanding terrorism...
Victimless Prosecution of Domestic Violence in the Wake of Crawford V. Washington
Introduction Domestic violence is unquestionably a massive social problem in American society. The United States Department of Justice has described domestic violence as the most common but least reported crime in America. (1) Because of the complex...
Walking the Diversity Compliance Tightrope: Maintaining the Balance between Enforcement and Equity
Abstract Many federal laws, such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, have enabled women and minorities access to the workplace. These same laws have mandated that employers prevent discrimination against women and minorities, yet when...
Women's Roles and Strengths in Times of Family and Community Stress
Abstract In the aftermath of national crises in the U.S. such as the Oklahoma City bombing of the Federal building 11 years ago, the destruction on September 11, 2001, and the recent hurricanes and flooding in New Orleans and other areas, much attention...