Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table

Articles from Summer

A–T T–W
A Crisis in Archetypes: How Framing U. S. Elections as Heroes versus Villains Promotes Two-Valued Orientation, Encourages Corruption, and Erodes Public Trust
Introduction If my skull had hinges and it popped open, a peep inside would reveal boys running in all directions. My father drew this conclusion when I was fifteen during a discussion of whether we should purchase season tickets for the Braves...
A Critical Choice: The Arts and Humanities in the Dark Age of Terrorism and Globalism
This is the dark age of terrorism. Humanity will not survive a dark age where terrorism is the only sustainable solution left to those with sympathy or membership in the second or third world. A nation-state's power and strength is based disproportionally...
An Innovative Approach to Studying Migration: Applying Functional Mapping to Examine Global Migration Trends
Introduction Using a technique that had previously been used to model the spread of disease, the authors show that global migration patterns can be mathematically modeled as they "spread" around the world revealing trends of population movement....
Apportionment and the Right to Vote "Fair and Foul"
Article I of the American Constitution vests all legislative powers granted therein to a Congress which consists of two chambers: a Senate composed of two Senators from each state elected, after 1913, by the people in statewide elections, and a House...
A Rediscovered Feminist Vision: Mary Wollstonecraft and Global Education for Girls and Women
Introduction The search for a unified identity of the younger women's movement is no new topic of discussion. Early on in the New Millenium several young feminist scholars organized to begin planning a conference to raise questions on the future...
Arguing against Nativist Theory: The Positive Impact of Immigration in the United States
America is a nation composed almost entirely of immigrants. Immigrants began arriving in the Americas since at least 1492 and in what is today the United States since the early 1500s, immigrants continue to arrive five hundred and fifteen years later....
Art Meets Science
Introduction Links between the arts and sciences are abundant and critical to a holistic approach to general education. As educators, we have the unique opportunity to make these interdisciplinary connections evident to our students through a variety...
Attitudes towards Health Technologies for Telecare and Their Relationship to Successful Aging in a Community-Based Older Minority Population
Background The US older population has grown rapidly during the 20th century, and although people are now living longer, the incidence of chronic illness is rising in this population, threatening individual quality of life, and placing more demands...
A World-Systems View of Human Migration Past and Present: Providing a General Model for Understanding the Movement of People
Most of those engaged in policy debates continue to make a number of assumptions about migration, assumptions that are contradicted by much of the recent research. Lillian Trager 2005a: 31 Introduction Immigration issues flood contemporary...
Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional and Technological Aspects of Culture through Art Education
Introduction It is often easier to dwell on the dissension and problems created by difference than it is to find consensus between dissimilar groups with varying modes of thought. It is my intention to find the common ground shared by scholars and...
Balancing Innovation with Tradition: Maintaining a Relevant College Music Curriculum
Technology is a cohesive bridge to the fine arts and often changes the context of study, creation, and performance of music. Personal computers, MIDI, synthesizers and software are changing the way educators present the fundamental principles of music....
Birth, Marriage, Honor & Poverty: Ramifications of Traditional Hindu Culture & Custom on Modern Indian Women
Introduction The continuing ramifications of Hindu teachings on the lives of modern Indian women and girls are an important aspect of understanding crimes of violence against them, as is the fact that the application of scriptural and traditional...
Blinded by Belief: Faith versus Freedom, the Opening Crusade of the 21st Century
The hotel television set glowed eerily in the dark room as we settled in for the night, having arrived from Los Angeles late in the day on the 20th of March, 2003. Our hotel, a short distance from St. Nicholas's Church on the Mala Strana side of the...
Breach of Faith: Towards a Political Genealogy of Trust
Popular distrust of government has steadily increased. The undermining of the most fundamental of all democratic principles, the intimate connection between citizenry and its government, has encouraged alienation and disaffiliation from a state that...
Building Stronger Business and Professional Ethical Practices: A Survey of Research That Asks the Question: Can We Teach Ethics to Young Adults or Is It Too Late?
The question of whether ethics can be taught at all, much less to post-secondary level adults, has haunted philosophers, educators, and scholars for centuries. Educators and professionals continue to ask this question, and no definitive answer has...
Civility in C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien
Civility In C. S. Lewis And J. R. R. Tolkien As the final action in Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" is about to occur, the vicious murderer, the Misfit, says of Christ's rising from the dead: "... if He didn't, then it's nothing...
Clouds in a Warmer Climate: Friend or Foe?
Introduction Past and Current Research, and Difficulties. The role of clouds in modulating the earth's climate is complex. Clouds can shield the earth's surface from incoming solar radiation, helping to cool the earth like the relief we feel beneath...
Cognitive and Constructivist Strategies for Teaching about Language and for Providing Reading and Writing Instruction
Introduction In far too many cases, professors of education indirectly tell their students, even in methodology courses, "Teach as I say to teach, not as I teach." Admittedly, lecturing to a class of prospective teachers seems to be the most expedient...
Collective Efficacy: A Community Level Health Promotion and Prevention Strategy
Introduction The Hispanic population in the United States has increased by more than 58% over the last decade. By the year 2000, the Hispanic population made up 12.5% of the total U. S. population. This percentage increased 2% by 2005 with the percentage...
Combating Structural Disempowerment in the Stride towards Gender Equality: An Argument for Redefining the Basis of Power in Gendered Relationships
Combating Structural Disempowerment in the Stride Towards Gender Equality: An Argument for Redefining the Basis of Power in Gendered Relationships The time has now come to reevaluate the structure of the underlying power dynamics inherent in discussions...
Common Trends in U.S. Women College President Issues
Introduction Within the last 44 years, the United States Congress has passed the 1963 Federal Equal Pay Act, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the 1970s Title VII and IX of the Education Amendments to address issues of discrimination. Since that time...
Communications and Military Intervention in Historical Perspective: The United States and Latin America
The importance of communications in contemporary warfare is evident in the use of global positioning satellites and laser guided bombs in the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 United States invasion of Iraq. Frederick Kagan encapsulates the priority given...
Community Alcohol Policy Coalitions in 10 College Communities: The 'A Matter of Degree' National Program to Reduce High Risk Drinking among College Students
Community Alcohol Policy Coalitions in 10 College Communities: The 'A Matter of Degree' National Background According to the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (SAMHSA 2007), 66.4 percent of college students consumed alcohol in the past...
Community-Based Health Education Intervention: A Service-Learning Approach
Introduction Sustaining a healthy community is the goal of every part of the world. However, achieving this goal requires careful planning and organizing by community members, health organizations, academic institutions, and various government agencies....
Conation: Cultivating the Will to Succeed among Middle and High School Students
Introduction How often have teachers asked, "When will they learn? Why is it so difficult for them to understand this or that concept? What is it going to take for the proverbial light bulb to come on?" "How do I get them to want to learn for the...
Contemporary Art, Science, Ecology, and a Critical Pedagogy of Place
Introduction Two difficult conditions, with their attendant consequences, define the context of education that would be responsive to ecological concerns. First, human progress emphasizing the domination of nature has devastated many parts of the...
Creating a Global Consciousness by Embracing a World of Women: A Pedagogical Strategy Dedicated to Regaining the Momentum for Women's Rights
Introduction When asked if they are "feminists," the answer my students at Assumption College almost always give is a resounding, "NO!" They go on to tell me that they no longer see a need to work for women's rights because, they assert, gender...
Dealing with Global Migration: Applying Two Sociological Theories
Introduction Migrations from Less Developed Countries (LDCs) to More Developed Countries (MDCs) have been increasing rapidly since 1990, concerning many people in MDCs for a number of reasons including higher welfare costs since, for example in...
Defining Religion, Spirituality and Human Experience
Defining Religion, Spirituality and Human Experience This paper is a thought-experiment, less a research endeavor, more an essay or analysis. It seeks a context for the Oxford Round Table discussion "Allusions to God in Literature." It searches...
Democracy as Trust in Public Discourse
1. "All governments rest on opinion" --James Madison (1) James Madison, a principle author of the U. S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights, was an accomplished student of political theory, both ancient and modern. The Federalist Papers were...
Distrust and the Nuclear Doctrine
Introduction Can one man derail a train with nothing but his will? Can a few thousand human beings armed with nothing but audacity and purpose bring to a halt the mighty freight train of government, industry, power, war, that overwhelming...
Documenting Characteristics of Highly Qualified Teachers
Introduction The concept of "highly qualified teacher" is of great importance in educational reform, generally, and in reading instruction, specifically. It is well known that the teacher is the key to the learning process of students in classrooms....
Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Lesbian Women and Work-Relationship Conflict
Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Lesbian Women and Work-Relationship Conflict We learn from an early age that there are good fun secrets and bad dirty secrets. Not telling your mom about her surprise birthday party falls into the good fun secret category....
Effectiveness of Foldables[TM] versus Lecture/worksheet in Teaching Social Studies in Third Grade Classrooms
Introduction Good educators are always looking for effective ways to improve students' learning and interest in academic subjects. Any activity that promotes reading and encourages critical thinking is especially valued by teachers. Among the methods...
Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking among College Students and Residents in an Urban Environment
I. Introduction. Background on American college student alcohol use In 2002 more than 1 in 10 young American adults aged 18 to 24 years were heavy drinkers (i.e., consuming five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the...
Effect of Governmental Immunity on Declining Governmental Ethics-The King Can Do Wrong!
Some of the decline in ethics in government must be attributed to the awareness of governmental officials that they generally cannot be sued for their wrongful or unethical conduct. The long standing judicial doctrine of sovereign immunity, which prevents...
E=[mc.Sup.2] and Other Artistic Equations: Encouraging the Complementary Skills of Einstein and of Picasso through Redefinition
E=[mc.sup.2] and Other Artistic Equations In his 1963 essay "The Two Cultures: A Second Look," C.P. Snow calls for communication between what he describes as the "two cultures" of "scientists" and "literary intellectuals" (Snow, 1963, p.59) so that,...
"Every Church Is the Same: Control, Destroy, Obliterate Every Good Feeling": Philip Pullman and the Challenge of Religious Intolerance
No children's books since C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia have combined popular success and religious advocacy as effectively as Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials (1995-2000). But quite unlike the Christian-inspired Chronicles, Pullman's fantasy...
Evolution: Do the Eyes Have It?
Introduction Charles Darwin expressed wonder at the eye and pondered if it could not be explained by evolution by natural selection, then his theory would be declared false. Since then much has been written on scenarios for evolution of the eye....
Factors of Change in Modern Europe: A Practical Way to Teach Contemporary History
A Note on the Problem of 'Contemporary History' The Concise OED informs us that 'history' is "the study of past events; a continuous ... record of past events or trends." and reminds us that it originates from the Greek for 'learned, wise man.'...
Food Stamp Use among Food Pantry Clients in the United States
Introduction For impoverished families in the United States, the social safety net consists largely of "in-kind" assistance, such as food stamps or housing vouchers, with more limited availability of cash welfare. Of all anti-poverty programs in...
Gender Equity: In Search of Diotima's Place with the Ancient Philosophers
Gender Equity: In Search of Diotima's Place With the Ancient Philosophers Within the text of Plato's Symposium (Plato, trans. 1948) when it is Socrates turn to speak he defers to his teacher a woman named Diotima from Mantinea. Socrates recounts...
Gender Equity: Promoting Healthy Outcomes
Introduction It has been assumed that progress on issues of gender parity, such as better educational and vocational opportunities and increased income would translate into better health outcomes for women. Certainly women's health has generally...
Gender Microaggressions in Higher Education: Proposed Taxonomy and Change through Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies
The representation of women in higher education Every year, the Chronicle of Higher Education devotes an issue to facts about higher education across the United States. The most recent issue (August 31, 2007, Volume 54, Number 1) characterized women...
Globalization and Its Effect on National Security
Introduction There has been much criticism, complaint, argument, and finding fault with national policies of past and present. That is easy to do. But the past cannot be changed. It can only be taken as lessons for the future, which can be changed....
Global Migration as a Solution to Worker Shortages in Industrialized Economies
Introduction According to a Manpower (2007) survey of 37,000 employers in twenty-seven countries and territories, "41 percent of employers worldwide are having difficulty filling positions due to suitable talent available in their market". The top...
God in American Literary History: Changing Perspectives
God in American Literary History: Changing Perspectives In 1993 the eminent Harvard political scientist Samuel P. Huntington published an article in the journal Foreign Affairs titled "The Clash of Civilizations." Viewing contemporary international...
God Wants Us to Be Equal: Why Gender Matters in Feminism
I have struggled over writing this paper. What hasn't been said about this topic already? There are numerous historical studies on the rise of feminism and the response of Christianity to that rise. Same with feminism and Islam. Right now, I...
Going to Hell in a Handbasket: Courts and Religion in America
[O]ften the news of American public schools is about plummeting SAT scores, gay and lesbian clubs, body piercing, robbery and sexual assaults of teachers and students, along with an infusion of radical anti-American and antiwar bias of the liberal...
Human Freedoms and Public Corruption around the World: Demonstration of a Curvilinear Relationship
1. Introduction Seldom has a week passed in the last few years without a report appearing in the broadcast and/or print media regarding some actual or alleged violation of various freedoms, or some actual or alleged act of corruption on the part...
Image Making and Meaning: Educational Benefits to Studying Design in the 21st Century
Introduction When I begin a design project in class, I always tell my students to define the characteristics of the project first, proceed with research, reflect on the definition, create and produce the solution, and finally, evaluate their response....
Imperial Aspirations, Religious Freedom and Public Education
I. The Modern Religious Problematic If the foundation of democracy is public education, and if democracy presupposes the possibility of rational debate then public education is imperiled by the classical formulation of Christianity which has denied...
Improving American Police Ethics Training: Focusing on Social Contract Theory and Constitutional Principles
Introduction Ethics in government seems like an oxymoron to many American citizens. They are becoming increasingly cynical in their view of politicians, appointed officials and other public servants at all levels of government. Scandals and abuses...
Interdisciplinary Education in Emergency Preparedness: Assuring the Safety of Aging Populations
Aging is a global phenomenon. It impacts unequally, with this inequality attributable to such factors as gender, culture, education, socioeconomic status and access to primary and preventive care. Access to care and the quality of that care are...
Internet and Email Utilization by a Nursing Home Resident: A Single Subject Design Exploratory Study for Improved Quality of Life for the Elderly
Introduction Literature and the media suggest that there will be significant in the numbers of elderly adults in the American and world populations. "The Baby Boomers will start turning 65 in 2011, and the number of older people will increase dramatically...
Is Public Concern over Growing Executive Compensation Justified? A Study of Income and Wealth Inequality
Introduction Economic inequality has always been a core concern in England. Underlying the Magna Carta of 1215 and the Bill of Rights in 1689, it was again inequality between high food prices set by wealthy landlords and low-income working classes...
Is the U.S. Government's Mining of Commercial Data Contributing to an Erosion of Trust in Government?
I. Introduction Several days after the September 11, 2001, attack on the U.S., Hank Asher, founder of a Florida-based commercial data broker company known as Seisint, ran a new data mining system through the company's 20-billion-record database....
Losing Trust in Leadership: Philosophical & Theological Factors
Thesis In the Western democracies of the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Australia there is a waning of trust in leadership. (1) While many factors are contributing to this waning of trust, one factor that...
Managing Social Security Benefits to Avoid Future Impoverishment for At-Risk Populations in the U.S
Introduction: In the wake of the imminent retirement of the "baby-boomers", combined with the increase in life expectancy overall, concerns with the quality of life is become increasingly as (or more) important than the quantity of years. Future...
Music: A Bridge between Two Cultures
Introduction C. P. Snow's The Two Cultures (1) deals at length with the lack of communication between the world of science and that of the humanities, which he treats almost exclusively in terms of literature. Snow does, however, remark that music...
Narration, Knowing, and Female Empowerment: Telling Stories, Authorizing Experience
Narration, Knowing, and Female Empowerment: Telling Stories, Authorizing Experience Vera Brittain dreamed of the day when women's rights would be openly discussed and taken seriously. She would be proud to see this Oxford Round Table on Women's...
No Child Left Behind Strikes the Arts: How Can We Restore a Balance among the Studies in the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities?
Introduction In recent years Americans have experienced many changes that have virtually affected every important aspect of our lives including; economic, global, cross-cultural, environmental and civic issues. Our world is being dramatically reshaped...
No Natural Rights, No Liberal State, Treitschke and Locke
Thus the newly stirring national feelings that had played so vital a role in the emancipation of the people and the emergence of democracy stood in constant danger of turning into dictatorship and destruction.... Even more startling [than Mazzini]...
Obstacles to Gender Parity in Engineering Education
Introduction Traditionally low enrolment rates of women in engineering programs in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and the European Union have been accounted for by what can be termed a Western women in engineering meta-narrative....
Orwell's "Smelly Little Orthodoxies": Absolutism and the Crisis of Our Time
With the historical triumph of modernity in the West, who could have possibly foreseen the tsunami-like resurgence of religion as a force in the political life of our times? Radical jihadists are breaching the wall separating church and state with...
Paradigm Shifts That Nurture Improved Middle School Reading Instruction
Introduction Improving middle school reading instruction requires the integration of three critical components: the effectiveness of the classroom teacher, the accountability of the local school administrator, and the long-term commitment of city-wide...
Physical Fitness: The Gateway to Preventive Health
Introduction We are currently in the early stages of a pandemic that may create enormous personal suffering and place enormous stress on our health care systems, to the point of having detrimental affects on the economies of countries throughout...
Poor Mothers' Rights to Education: Access and Support for Post-Secondary Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the United States
Poor Mothers' Rights to Education In 2001, five years after the "Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act" (PRWORA), commonly known as welfare reform, and in the context of increasing economic disparities in the United States,...
Preferential States of the Dichotomy of Human Nature: Art and Science
Introduction All too often the necessity of the arts and creative thought is relegated a subservient role to the sciences in current western societies. Yet in many other regions across the globe, the arts hold a different more prominent and integrated...
Protecting the Elderly in Times of Disaster: The Critical Need for Comprehensive Disaster Planning and Exercise Design
Introduction Recent disasters in the United States, especially Hurricane Katrina, have proven the inadequacy of planning for the protection and safety of our vulnerable populations. The vulnerable, or special, populations can be categorized in many...
Questioning and Informational Texts: Scaffolding Students Comprehension of Content Areas
Questioning Historically and currently, teachers use questioning as a mode of teaching, learning and assessing students' understanding of texts (Durkin, 1978/ 1979; Pressley, 2000). Across disciplines, teachers utilize questioning to promote memory,...
Questioning Collaboration in Feminist Research: A Women and Poverty Research Model Reconsidered
Introduction Psychologist Howard Gardner, Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education in the Harvard Graduate School of Education, suggested in Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership (1996) that there are only three questions worth asking--What?...
Reason's Personal and Public Roles in Meeting Snow's Challenge
Introduction C.P. Snow left quite a challenge; one he was not at all sure could be met. The question is whether humans might individually reach a degree of integration such that they are able to participate meaningfully in both the culture of science...
Reflective Assessment: Including Students in the Assessment Process
Reflective Assessment: Including Students in the Assessment Process Over the last decade alternative assessment strategies have become an important part of the debate regarding the reform and restructuring of American education. In contrast to the...
Religion and Politics in the United States: Money, Free Speech, and Deference to America's Religious Heritage
Introduction: Theory of Church and State in America Church and state in the United States are separate in theory but not in practice. Nor have they ever been. Escape from religious persecution was a cause not consequence of the European immigration...
Religious Assimilation in Early American Fiction
In Susan Vreeland's novel, The Forest Lover, the artistic and historical accomplishments of Emily Carr (1870-1946) are portrayed. (1) Carr was a strongly independent woman, an amazing adventurer and painter who was born and raised in a well to do family...
Representative Agency: The Fundamental Trust Relation of All Social Structure
Representative Agency: The Fundamental Trust Relation of All Social Structure Reliance on someone else's trustworthiness is dangerous, and only potentially useful. Trust is a dangerous act because it creates vulnerabilities and exposes one to the...
Resolving the Religious Freedom Issue of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
"The participants in the Conference on Peace and Tolerance demand that no hostile acts be perpetrated upon any peaceful group or region ... we demand the initiation of constructive dialogues to solve outstanding issues between those of different faiths;...
Separation of Church and State: Constitutional Policy in Conflict
Separation of Church and State: Constitutional Policy in Conflict The phenomena instituted within the First Amendment's Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses as part of the Bill of Rights on December 15, 1791, will not be reconciled--still in...
Separation of Church and State: The American Dilemma
Introduction The United States Constitution specifically addresses the issue of government's relationship with religion in several places-- Article VI, "... no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification To any Office or public Trust...
Separation of Church and State: The Myth
The controversy persists. To entertain the topical problem of the separation of church and state we need to define numerous terms and concepts. To examine the particular role of 'religion' in human culture is a must. Bear in mind that the term 'church'...
Shifting Tides: Migration in the Era of Globalization, Global Conflict, and Environmental Collapse
Introduction When examining the issue of migration in the context of globalization and environment, it is difficult not to lean towards catastrophic scenarios. Globalization is aimed at placing the world under a unitary economic framework of free...
Speaking with the "Tongues of Men and of Angels": Addressing Human Conflict through Christian Charity in the Short Fiction of Herman Melville
Speaking with the "Tongues of Men and of Angels": Addressing Human Conflict through Christian Charity in the Short Fiction of Herman Melville A report from the 2007 Pew Global Attitudes Project notes that "in a world where the ties that bind are,...
Spiritual Redemption through Love as a Recurring Theme in 20th Century American Literature
At the dawn of the twentieth century, it appeared that religious faith would soon be obsolete. Advances in science and technology had rendered belief in supernatural causes for natural phenomena untenable and had cast doubt on the idea that there's...
Strategies for Reaching Achievement
Introduction Implementing advanced academic curriculums and programming frameworks are critical elements for a nation's educational structure. As technological devices become increasingly popular, students are relying less upon cognitive abilities...
Teaching Bad Faith and Broken Promises: The Erosion of the Covenant between the Citizen and the State
Introduction To begin this essay, I will present a working definition of both contracts and covenants as they are used to regulate human interaction between two parties. Covenants, I will assert, are special, more meaningful, relationships that...
Tenure in Higher Education: Property Right or No Rights?
Introduction The university tenure process for faculty occurs within both a micro culture, a single institution, and a macro culture, such as a university system and/or the power and influence of major funding sources like state and national governments....
The Absence of Ethics in No Child Left Behind
Introduction When a government passes legislation it is ethically responsible to legislate a law that is for the good of the whole, or will protect a selected class that has historically been discriminated against. Dennis Thompson writing in The...
The American Religion and All That Mumbo-Jumbo: The Gnostic, the A-Gnostic and the Pagan in American Literature
Many humanists and liberals who supported the war against Osama bin Laden and the Taliban and even, initially, the 2003 invasion of Iraq also might have called the self a "true standard of being" underpinning Western democracy, whose values of individual...
The Baltic-From European Sea of Troubles to Global Interface
1. Qualitative Change makes the Baltic Different The study of Seas The idea of studying a vast sea as an entity has a formidable pioneer in Fernand Braudel, who analysed the role of the Mediterranean for the peoples surrounding it. His La Mediterranee...
The Democrats Embrace God: An Unqualified Blessing?
In recent decades, the Republican party and conservative religious activists have presented themselves as protectors of moral and religious values. (1) Evidence of this, they say, is their policies relating to sexual behavior, marriage, and the family,...
The Dover Question: Will Kitzmiller V Dover Affect the Status of Intelligent Design Theory in the Same Way as McLean V. Arkansas Affected Creation Science?
Introduction In Dover Pennsylvania, the local school board mandated the reading of the following statement which includes both a disclaimer marginalizing the biological theories of evolution and the recommendation of a school library book Of Pandas...
The Erosion of Ethical Standards in Government: Is What It Takes to Get Elected the Root of the Problem?
In the United States in the last few years, newspapers have been full of stories about ethical lapses by public officials. It is commonplace to hear people speak with dismay about the erosion of ethical standards in government. To be sure, misconduct...
The Evolution-Creationism Debate: A Case of Irreconcilable Differences or of Cyclic Dispute?
"The God of the Old Testament is arguably the most unpleasant character in all fiction." (R. Dawkins in The God Delusion) "I think it is highly important to emphasize, however, that all of the anti-Christian systems of modern times have found their...
The Example of Ireland and America: Politics, Religion and Sectarian Conflict during Ireland's 'Long' Eighteenth Century
"On the dogmas of religion, as distinguished from moral principles, all mankind, from the beginning of the world to this day, have been quarreling, fighting, burning and torturing one another, for abstractions unintelligible to themselves and to all...
The Food Habits of Black Older Adults in New York City: Are There Differences between African Americans and Caribbean-Born Immigrants?
Introduction and Background The extent to which healthcare practitioners fully understand the relationship between food habits relative to cultural health beliefs, health behaviors and the personal health status of older adults is extremely important...
The Historical and Political Influence of Imperialism and Colonialism upon 21st Century China
"We stand for self-reliance We hope for foreign aid but can not be dependent on it. We depend on our own efforts, on the creative power of the whole army and the entire people". Mao--January 10, 1945 The History of Chinese Politics In order...
The History of Presidential-Congressional Leadership in American War Making: From Washington to Bush and the Empire-Building Neocons
Introduction Writing in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution, the learned James Madison cautioned: If men were angels, no government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the...
The Impact of Collaboration in Interactive Reading Settings
Introduction Currently, higher education professors in graduate reading classes focus on the instructional task of balancing and integrating the reading process with the literacy areas (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing), fine arts,...
The Impact of Historical Expectations on Women's Higher Education
The Impact of Historical Expectations on Women's Higher Education In any examination of the status of women's rights and leadership, the issue of education--particularly at the collegiate level--inevitably rises to the fore. Education often provides...