Proceedings: International Symposium for Olympic Research

Articles from Annual

American Genesis: The Archeology of Women's Swimming at the 1920 Olympic Games
Tracing the early history of American women's swimming, a beginning culminated, at least internationally, by their domination of the competition at Antwerp in 1920, is to explore the life and times of New York court reporter Charlotte Epstein, the...
An Olympic Education: From Athletic Colonization to International Harmony
Introduction Since Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the modern Olympic Games, first recognized the value of using sport to reform France's educational system in the late 19th Century, the Anglo-American "cult of sport" has been used by many educational...
An Uneasy Discourse: Salt Lake 2002 and Olympic Protest
The general public's interests in the Olympics are the ceremonies, traditions and athletic competitions, not the cultural, economic, social, or, especially, political aspects of the Games. (1) Whenever the Games are threatened by political protests...
Caught in the Spotlight: Media Themes in the Build-Up to the Beijing Olympic Games
The Modern Olympic Games symbolize the struggle between man's ideals and the reality within which he must live. (1) The torch took about a year to design to the specifications that would keep it burning on its varied journey around the world, said...
China's Olympic Dreams and Their American Connections
The United States has affected China's Olympic dreams in some important ways. China's Olympic journey had often gone through its American route. This paper will examine several major events in which the United States played obvious or hidden roles....
'Clean Sport:' a Twofold Challenge in the Contemporary History of the Modern Olympic Games
Introduction In sport history and contemporary Olympic studies the term 'clean sport' has developed a twofold meaning. The first meaning refers to amateur sport, keeping it pure from the danger of professionalism. In the 1890s, for example, the...
Competing Women: Media Representations of Femininity and National Identification at the Olympic Games in Athens 2004
This paper is part of a wider project that examines media discourse surrounding British Olympic and Paralympic women athletes. The principal aim here is to discuss selected media representations of Dame Kelly Holmes at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens....
Conceptualizing the Role of Marketing in Combating Doping in Elite Sport
Introduction A scan of recent quotes around anti-doping reveals marketing as an important future consideration. For example, Travis Tygart, CEO of the United States Anti-Doping Agency, noted, on the day of a former Olympic champion's admittance...
Creating History Ahead of Time Olympic Collectibles and Marking Time
For several months prior to the Sydney 2000 Olympics, I temporarily became an avid collector of Olympic pins. Though not "a morning person," I would wake early on the appointed day and phone in my order as soon as the clock struck 6am in order not...
'Democracy Is Not the Holy Grail': Concepts and Attitudes of Olympic Athletes toward the IOC Athletes Commission
The Empowerment of Athletes and the IOC Athletes' Commission Crises and conflicts are far from being considered odd in the history of the Olympic Movement. On the contrary, since its founding, the Olympic Movement has gone through crises and tests...
Diplomats in Tracksuits or Simply Olympic Athletes? Eastern European Female Oarswomen at the Olympic Games during the Cold War
Introduction Former International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Avery Brundage was renowned for his unwavering belief that politics had no place in the Olympic Games. However, during Brundage's presidency, the Olympic movement was bombarded...
East to Olympia: Recentering Olympic Philosophy between East and West
Introduction By going to Beijing in the summer of 2008, the Olympic Games seem to have ventured farther than ever from their cultural and geographical origin in ancient Olympia, Greece. This can be viewed as a triumph--but a triumph of what? Some...
Every Nation Has Her Own Olympics: The Estonian Example
Every Nation Has Her Own Olympics: The Estonian Example The Olympic Movement has become a global and universal event, involving more than 200 countries. Disregarding the long traditions and noble ideas of the Olympic Movement, it is the constant...
Examining "The Rhodesian Affair:" the IOC and African Politics in the 1970s
Charles Little's detailed account of the exclusion of Rhodesia from the 1968 Mexico City Games provides scholars with a renewed understanding of the African nation's status in the international sport community during the late 1960s. Little contends...
From the Partners in Pursuit of Excellence to Own the Podium: An Ideological Slip in Canadian Olympic Sport
From the 1960s to the present day, the discourse on Canadian sport has incorporated the phrase or slogan, "the pursuit of excellence." Can we presume that "the pursuit of excellence" unifies this discourse; does it bring the different stakeholders...
Gender, Interculturalism, and Discourses on Women's Leadership in the Olympic Movement
In relation to the first of these groups, female Olympic leaders in Muslim countries, the paper seeks to highlight the implications of Huntington's influential model of the world (2) as made up of separate and competing civilisational blocks, arguing...
'Geographie Sportive:' over 100 Years of Charting the Globe's Territorial Disputes with the Olympic Formula
Introduction The fundamental rule of the modern Olympics is contained in two lines: all games, all nations and it is not even in the power of the International Olympic Committee, which is the highest authority in the matter, to do anything...
Interpretations of the Body: A Comparison of Nietsche's "Superman" and De Coubertin's "Athlete"
The central point of this paper is that period of the 19th century when a new body culture, whose origin is undoubtedly favoured by the rise of a new sports movement, comes into existence. Developments in the philosophy of the 19th century begin to...
"Jumping like a Girl:" Women's Ski-Jumping, Risk Discourses and Discursive Silence
Introduction In a January 2008 agreement brokered by the Canadian Human Rights Commission, the Canadian government pledged to pressure the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to reconsider a November 2006 decision denying women the right to compete...
Losing Bids, Winning Legacies: An Examination of the Need to Plan for Olympic Legacies Prior to the Bidding
Introduction Whilst Grenoble, Montreal and Sydney are a namber of high profile cases of white elephants and clear examples of deficiencies in Olympic planning there are a namber of examples of cities that have won the right to host an event and...
Michel Breal (1832-1915)-The Man Behind the Idea of the Marathon
Born 175 years ago in Landau, Palatinate, Michel Breal is typically known among experts as an outstanding linguist--this is also indicated on the memorial plate at his place of birth. This contribution, however, shows another Breal: the man who provided...
News from the Hippodrome at Olympia
Pausanias and the Race Course The area to the east of the sanctuary of Olympia had not yet been an object of archaeological researches, even though, according to ancient documents, there had to be the largest building by surface area for the realisation...
Nothing New under the Olympic Sun? the Swearing of Oaths at the Ancient and Modern Games
There is nothing new under the sun but there are lots of old things we don't know. (1) True though this quotation may be, there are nevertheless many "old things" that one can still discover with the right tools and use to elucidate problems in...
Olympic Education Programmes for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games a Collaboration of Grassroots and Government
Introduction The Games of XXIX Olympiad have drawn worldwide attention since 13 July 2001, when Beijing was granted the right to host the Olympics. (1) The main reason is that the games will be staged in a country with quite a different social and...
Olympism: A Western Liberal Idea That Ought Not to Be Imposed on Other Cultures?
Introduction As a person from a developing country that was troubled by ethnic war for three decades, I consider that it is my duty to find answers to this problem of how to live in peace and harmony for the benefit of the next generation. Many...
Olympism, Governmentality and Technologies of Power
Introduction In this paper we seek to understand the process of construction of discourse on Olympism and its evolving nature from the end of the 19th to the mid-20th century. This is to be undertaken principally through an analysis of the writings...
Panel Debate: New Media at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
This panel engages some of these issues in the form of a round table debate about the future of journalism at the Olympic Games. It reviews some of the implications of emerging new media platforms, arguing that the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games can be...
Patriarch and a Charismatic Leader? Some Reflections on IOC President J. Sigfrid Edstrom's Leadership Style Based on Max Weber's Concept of Charisma
A number of books and articles have been written about different sports officials, both in connection with the Olympic Games and otherwise, on the basis of a number of different aspects. (1) In most cases the focus is on the sports official's deeds...
Pierre De Coubertin's "Civilizing Mission"
The purpose of my paper is to analyze Pierre de Coubertin's concepts of "civilization" and "race," in order better to understand the anthropological foundations of his Olympism in general and to show that this Olympism has been a part of his "civilizing...
Pierre De Coubertin's Ideology of Beauty from the Perspective of the History of Ideas
Coubertin's lexicon is littered with the term, or derivatives of the term, beauty. He talks of the "radiant beauty" of the Empress Eudoxia, (1) the "beauty" of gymnastics, (2) the "beauty" of a World's Fair, (3) and of course, the "beauty" of sport...
Power, Politics, and Capitalism: Ascension to the Zenith of the Modern Olympic Movement
People follow their words and deeds from one flash to another in the television, radio or print media, in the form of ever more condensed information that is thus increasingly sketchy. People have the impression of knowing them. Yet, above and beyond...
Preface
Pathways: Critiques and Discourse in Olympic Research, is the title of the Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium for Olympic Research organized and published by the International Centre for Olympic Studies (ICOS) at The University of Western...
Richard Coombes: 'Grand Old Man' of Australian Olympism?
This paper combines an extra-Olympic perspective with a biographical approach in order to determine the factors that influenced the transmission of Olympism in Australia. The subject for study is the Olympic career of Richard Coombes, an International...
Situating the Absent Subject: Jean Hales and the 1928 Canadian Olympic Trials
Within feminist scholarship, personal subjective experience is an important source of academic knowledge. Reflecting on feminist studies of sport over the past two decades, Pirrko Markula suggests that many researchers have engaged in "feminist work...
Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends
I was pleased to hear I have the opportunity to write about "Olympic legends." I always argued fought against many of these legends, which are often just fairytales, and always tried to show the sometimes more scholarly correct view of the reality....
Some Thoughts on the General Economies of Cities/ States/provinces after Hosting the Olympic Games
Introduction The Baron Pierre de Coabertin's original scheme for Modern Olympic Games, presented at an international sports conference at the Sorbonne in Paris in Jane 1894, made few provisions for the financial anderwriting of the grand project....
Symbology of Success: Aboriginal Games and the Insignia of Olympic Validation
The Self-referential Symbolic Inventory of Olympic Sports The fact that the Olympic Games constitute themselves as a "great symbol" (1) has been noted by a variety of observers; MacAloon is not the only one but one of the more influential authors...
The Australian Olympic Caravan in Beijing
'Not All Those Who Wander Are Lost' (J.R.R. Tolkien) Legacy research has expanded considerably since I presented a paper on 'Olympic Legacy in an Olympic City: Monuments, Museums and Memory' at the Fourth International Symposium for Olympic Research...
The Birth of the Modern 'Olympic Truce:' the Chronological Approach
Introduction he IOC claims that it started the modern "Olympic Truce" project in 1991 for the first time, according to a document (fact sheet) on the website of the IOC. (1) This fact sheet shows that the IOC and UN negotiated for the athletes of...
The Content and Foundations of Olympic Studies: Subject Profile Analysis of a Decade of Olympika
Introduction This study explores one aspect of the nature of Olympic Studies by examining the content of research articles published in the peer reviewed journal Olympika: The International Journal of Olympic Studies, published by the International...
The Future of the Olympic Movement: Promised Land or Train Wreck?
May I begin by thanking you for this kind invitation to attend your deliberations and by congratulating you on your interest in research relating to the Olympic Movement. As a member of the International Olympic Committee for more than thirty years,...
The 'Greek Department' in Denmark and Pierre De Coubertin's Manipulations: A Case Study regarding Politics and Ideology in the Olympic Movement
Introduction In 1906 there were two anniversaries to be celebrated for Danish sport. In February the Danish Sports Federation (DSF) (1) had its tenth birthday, and a few months later it was the tenth anniversary of the first modern Olympic Games...
The Olympics as Media Space: The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from the Interdisciplinary Perspective of Media and Design Studies
Introduction The Olympic Games are among the largest-in-scale global media events, and have become a great social laboratory for the employment of cutting-edge communication technologies and design strategies by leading industries of the host cities...
The Origin of the Swedish Olympic Hero: Incorporation of Olympic Sport Stars into the Myth of the National Hero
The origin of the Swedish sports hero can be linked to the Olympic Games in Athens in 1906. It was then that Swedish newspapers for the first time had on-the-spot reporters who followed and reported from the competitions. The Games were portrayed in...
The Paralympic Protest Paradox: The Politics of Rhodesian Participation in the Paralympic Games, 1960-1980
UDI and the Sports Boycott Against Rhodesia Rhodesian participation in international sport became an international issue following Ian Smith's unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) in November 1965, as the ruling white minority of the colony...
The Vancouver Effect: An Examination of the Canadian Olympic Committee Olympic Selection Standards (2000-2008)
Introduction The Olympic Games, by every measure, are a massive entity. They are the largest regularly scheduled, international gathering in the world, and "have become the most celebrated event in history." (1) Politically, economically, socially...
'The World Youth to Share!' Challenges and Opportunities in Hosting the Youth Olympic Games
Introduction Adopted by the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) Session on July 5th 2007 in Guatemala City, the Youth Olympic Games were hailed as "a flagship of the IOC's strategy regarding young people." (1) According the IOC's planning,...
Torino 2006 OWG: Any Legacies for the IOC and Olympic Territories?
Introduction Two years have passed from the completion of the 20th edition of the Winter Olympics which were held in Turin in February 2006. This period of time is certainly not sufficient for providing a final assessment of the event which takes...
Two Days Lausanne Stood Still: The 108th Extraordinary IOC Session, March, 1999
Other than having a public hanging in the square, we couldn't have done anything to satisfy the critics. I don't know what they expect. It is our organization. We are trying to reform it, and we should be (the ones) doing it. (2) --James Easton,...
Understanding Olympic Tourist Behaviour: Implications for Maximizing the Tourism Impacts of London 2012
The aim of this research is to provide a deeper understanding of Olympic tourist behaviour in order to underpin Olympic tourism leveraging provision, especially in terms of marketing. At a recent Economic and Social Research Council Seminar at Bournemouth...
WADA as Sporting Empire: Prospects and Shadows
Introduction While athletes have sought to gain competitive advantage over their sporting opponents for centuries, the stakes for winning have gotten much higher in the contemporary age of capitalist high performance sport, and the techniques by...
Waltzing on Ice: Lake Placid, the Carter Doctrine, and China's Return to the Olympics
Following the conclusion of the three-day Executive Board meeting of the International Olympic Committee in Nagoya, Japan in late October 1979, the IOC President Lord Killanin submitted a resolution concerning the "two-Chinas" issue to the eighty-nine...
Western Centrism in Olympic Studies and Its Consequence in the 2008 Beijing Olympics
The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games will be only the third time the Olympic Summer Games have been held outside the West and its former colonies, after Tokyo 1964 and Seoul 1988. If one adds the 1972 Sapporo and 1998 Nagano Winter Games, these will be the...
What's at Stake? Considering the Immaterial Costs of Reversing Current Olympic Doping Control Policy
There seems to be a growing tide of scepticism in the academic literature of the English-speaking world about the pragmatic and ethical value of prohibiting performance-enhancing drug (PED) use. This tide of argument has pushed anti-doping advocates...
Youth-Based Programs and Initiatives of the Australian Olympic Movement an Investment in the Future!
This paper traces the development of youth-based programs and services of the Australian Olympic movement. This included studying the Australian Youth Olympic Festival (AYOF), educationbased programs of the AOC like the ASPIRE National Schools Program,...