Foreign Affairs

Articles from Vol. 91, No. 2, March/April

A Farewell to Fossil Fuels: Answering the Energy Challenge
Nearly 90 percent of the world's economy is fueled every year by digging up and burning about four cubic miles of the rotted remains of primeval swamp goo. With extraordinary skill, the world's most powerful industries have turned that oil, gas, and...
Chinese Computer Games: Keeping Safe in Cyberspace
In March 2011, the U.S. computer security company rsa announced that hackers had gained access to secur ity tokens it produces that let millions of government and private-sector employees, including those of defense contractors such as Lockheed Martin,...
Clear and Present Safety: The United States Is More Secure Than Washington Thinks
Last August, the Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney performed what has become a quadrennial rite of passage in American presidential politics: he delivered a speech to the annual convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. His message was...
Freedom's Secret Recipe: Balancing the State, Law, and Accountability
Freedom's Secret Recipe: Balancing the State, Law, and Accountability The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. by francis fukuyama. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011, 608 pp. $35.00 (paper, $18.00).Francis Fukuyama...
God and Caesar in America: Why Mixing Religion and Politics Is Bad for Both
From the day the Pilgrims stepped off the Mayflower, religion has played a prominent role in American public life. The faithful have been vital participants in nearly every major social movement in U.S. history, progressive as well as conservative. Still,...
Letters to the Editor
Jack Chow on China's health crisis, David Harris on Israel's quest for peace, and otherscough it upTo the Editor:Yanzhong Huang ("The Sick Man of Asia," November/December 2011) paints a troubling picture of a China that has rapidly industrialized yet...
NATO's Victory in Libya: The Right Way to Run an Intervention
Nato's operation in Libya has rightly been hailed as a model intervention. The alliance responded rapidly to a deteriorating situation that threatened hundreds of thousands of civilians rebelling against an oppressive regime. It succeeded in protecting...
Not Time to Attack Iran: Why War Should Be a Last Resort
Colin H. Kahl is an Associate Professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service and a Senior Fellow at the Center for a New American Security. In 2009-11, he was U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary...
Poker Lessons from Richelieu: A Portrait of the Statesman as Gambler
Poker Lessons From Richelieu: A Portrait of the Statesman as Gambler Éminence: Cardinal Richelieu and the Rise of France. by jean-vincent blanchard. Walker and Company, 2011, 320 pp. $30.00.Armand-Jean du Plessis, better known to history as Cardinal...
Recent Books on International Relations: Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Republics: The Politics of Protest in Hybrid Regimes: Managing Dissent in Post-Communist Russia/Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries
The Politics of Protest in Hybrid Regimes: Managing Dissent in Post-Communist Russia. by graeme b . robertson. Cambridge University Press, 2010, 304 pp. $95.00.Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries. by valerie j . bunce and sharon...
Recent Books on International Relations: Military, Scientific, and Technological: Leningrad: The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941-1944/the Battle of the Tanks: Kursk, 1943
Leningrad: The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941-1944. by anna reid . Walker and Company, 2011, 512 pp. $37.50.The Battle of the Tanks: Kursk, 1943. by lloyd clark. Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011, 496 pp. $30.00.Compared with southern and western Europe's...
Recent Books on International Relations: Military, Scientific, and Technological: With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918/the Beauty and the Sorrow: An Intimate History of the First World War
Military, Scientific, and Technological lawrence d. freed man With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918. by david stevenson . Belknap Press, 2011, 752 pp. $35.00.The Beauty and the Sorrow: An Intimate History of the First World War. by peter...
Recent Books on International Relations: Political and Legal: Taking Liberties: The War on Terror and the Erosion of American Democracy/Power and Constraint: The Accountable Presidency after 9/11
Taking Liberties: The War on Terror and the Erosion of American Democracy. by susan n. herman. Oxford University Press, 2011, 296 pp. $24.95.Power and Constraint: The Accountable Presidency After 9/11. by jack gold - smith. Norton, 2012, 336 pp. $26.95.The...
Recent Books on International Relations: Western Hemisphere: Latin America and the Caribbean's Long-Term Growth: Made in China?/Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead
Latin America and the Caribbean's Long- Term Growth: Made in China? by the office of the chief economist for latin america and the caribbean region. World Bank, 2011, 68 pp. Free online.Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road...
Rethinking Latin America: Foreign Policy Is More Than Development
Running down the list of the U.S. State Department's Latin America policy objectives in El País in September 2010, the economist Moisés Naím noted that they focused almost exclusively on domestic concerns: building democratic institutions, promoting...
The Arab Spring at One: A Year of Living Dangerously
Throughout 2011, a rhythmic chant echoed across the Arab lands: "The people want to topple the regime." It skipped borders with ease, carried in newspapers and magazines, on Twitter and Facebook, on the airwaves of al Jazeera and al Arabiya. Arab nationalism...
The Case for Space: Why We Should Keep Reaching for the Stars
In 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama articulated his vision for the future of American space exploration, which included an eventual manned mission to Mars. Such an endeavor would surely cost hundreds of billions of dollars-maybe even $1 trillion. Whatever...
The Future of U.S.-Chinese Relations: Conflict Is a Choice, Not a Necessity
On January 19, 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Hu Jintao issued a joint statement at the end of Hu's visit to Washington. It proclaimed their shared commitment to a "positive, cooperative, and comprehensive U.S.-China relationship."...
The Globalization of Animal Welfare: More Food Does Not Require More Suffering
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, articulates the idea that it is wrong to exclude any member of the human species from the circle of moral concern. This enlightened vision was a tremendous advance over earlier, more restricted...
The Iraq We Left Behind: Welcome to the World's Next Failed State
Nine years after U.S. troops toppled Saddam Hussein and just a few months after the last U.S. soldier leftIraq, the country has become something close to a failed state. Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki presides over a system rife with corruption and brutality,...
The Missing Middle in American Politics: How Moderate Republicans Became Extinct
The Missing Middle in American Politics: How Moderate Republicans Became ExtinctRule and Ruin: The Downfall of Moderation and the Destruction of the Republican Party, From Eisenhower to the Tea Party. by geoffrey kabaservice. Oxford University Press,...
War Downsized: How to Accomplish More with Less
The United States, facing deepening economic and fiscal woes at home, is preparing to withdraw from Afghanistan. More and more policymakers, congressional representatives, and members of the public are calling for the majority of U.S. forces to pull...
Why We Still Need the World Bank: Looking beyond Aid
In 2007, the World Bank was in crisis. Some saw conflicts over its leadership. Others blamed the institution itself. When the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the cornerstone of what became the World Bank Group, was founded in 1944,...