Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 76, No. 4, July

Chagas Disease Control Programme in Brazil: A Study of the Effectiveness of 13 Years of Intervention(*)
Introduction Public health services and programmes can be evaluated by different theoretical and methodological approaches which take into account the triad of structure-process-results (1). Since structure and process can rapidly be assessed, the...
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Changes in Premature Deaths in Finland: Successful Long-Term Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases
Background Owing to exceptionally high cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates, especially from coronary heart disease (CHD), in the eastern regions of Finland (1-3), the North Karelia project was launched in 1972 as an intensive preventive...
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Commentary: Oral Rehydration Solution
In 1983, when the article by A.R. Samadi et al. was published, the WHO Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Programme (CDD) was only beginning. At that time in most hospitals throughout the world the standard treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate...
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Comparison of AIK-C Measles Vaccine in Infants at 6 Months with Schwarz Vaccine at 9 Months: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Ghana(*)
Introduction Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, the high morbidity and mortality of measles continue to be a major child health problem in developing countries. It is estimated that measles claims the lives of over 1 million...
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Cost-Effectiveness of Oral Cholera Vaccine in a Stable Refugee Population at Risk for Epidemic Cholera and in a Population with Endemic Cholera
Introduction The recent development of safe and reasonably effective oral cholera vaccines has made it possible to consider their use in situations where the risk of epidemic cholera is high. WHO has strongly discouraged the use of the previous...
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Eradication of Schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 1: Setting, Strategies, Operations, and Outcomes, 1953-92
Introduction This article analyses policies, strategies, activities and outcomes of the programme leading to schistosomiasis eradication in Guangxi, a large autonomous region in south-west China. In many areas of China schistosomiasis has been eradicated...
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Factors Limiting the Domestic Density of Triatoma Infestans in North-West Argentina: A Longitudinal Study
Introduction Triatoma infestans Klug is probably the most important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease (1). The prevalence and incidence of human infection with T. cruzi have been reported to increase with bug density,...
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Nomenclature of Immunoglobulin A and Other Proteins of the Mucosal Immune System(*)
IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on IgA Nomenclature(1) Background and definitions The predominant immunoglobulin found in exocrine secretions of humans and most other mammals is secretory IgA, a polymeric form of IgA containing an additional glycoprotein...
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Prevalence of Caries and Edentulousness among 65-74-Year-Olds in Europe
Introduction Almost all industrialized countries are witnessing a demographic evolution characterized by the aging of their population. A theory of demographic transition has been proposed to account for this, whereby every population, at a certain...
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Rapport Sur la Sante Dans le Monde 1998
La vie au [21.sup.e] siecle Une perspective pour tous Comment vivra-t-on au [21.sup.e] siecle ? Le monde vat-il devenir un lieu encore plus salubre, ou un nombre croissant de maladies seront vaincues grace au progres de la science et ou l'esperance...
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Rehabilitation of the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Sudan Following a Poliomyelitis Outbreak
Introduction Childhood immunization is one of most cost-effective public health interventions available, and a mainstay of primary health care services (1). The WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) began in 1976 and achieved enormous success,...
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Replacement of Intravenous Therapy by Oral Rehydration Solution in a Large Treatment Centre for Diarrhoea with Dehydration(*)
Diarrhoeal diseases present a major health problem in developing countries. It is reported that 750-1000 million cases of diarrhoea occur in children below 5 years of age in Asia, Africa and Latin America every year. It is estimated that 3-6 million...
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Screening for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Rural Women in Papua New Guinea: Are WHO Therapeutic Algorithms Appropriate for Case Detection?(*)
Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in resource-poor settings. High rates of STDs have been documented among apparently low-risk women, with reported prevalences...
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Standardisation De L'antibiogramme De Neisseria Meningitidis. Detection Des Souches Relativement Resistantes a la Penicilline
Introduction Il n'existe pas actuellement de consensus sur les methodes d'etude de la sensibilite de Neisseria meningitidis aux antibiotiques. La nature des milieux employes, l'incubation en presence ou non de dioxyde de carbone, les valeurs critiques,...
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Use of Time-Series Analysis in Infectious Disease Surveillance
Introduction Early identification of an outbreak of a reportable disease is the first step toward an effective intervention to contain it. However, outbreaks are often well under way before public health authorities become aware of them. Time-series...
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