Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 88, No. 11, November

Access to Essential Medicines in National Constitutions
Access to essential medicines is well founded in international law as part of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("the right to health"). The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in 1966 calls for...
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Antimicrobial Resistance: Revisiting the "Tragedy of the Commons"
When the NDM1 enzyme-containing "superbugs" struck in India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom earlier this year, media reports blamed medical tourism for its spread. But in this interview, Professor John Conly argues that the overuse and misuse of antibiotics...
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At Last a Global Response to Viral Hepatitis: A Million People Die from Viral Hepatitis Every Year, Yet until Now the Public Health Response Has Been Patchy and Piecemeal, Overwhelmed by the Sheer Scale of the Problem
Viral hepatitis affects approximately 500 million people around the world - more than 10 times the number affected by HIV/AIDS. Different viruses can cause various forms of viral hepatitis. While type A viral hepatitis is an acute and transient...
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Availability and Quality of Cause-of-Death Data for Estimating the Global Burden of Injuries/ Disponibilite et Qualite Des Donnees Relatives Aux Causes De Deces Dans L'estimation Du Poids Mondial Des Traumatismes/ Disponibilidad Y Calidad De Los Datos Sobre Las Causas De Defuncion Para Calcular la Carga Mundial De Traumatismos
Introduction Reliable estimates of the burden of death and disability due to injury are essential for shaping national and global health priorities. Although the quality of the information available in developing countries is relatively poor, past...
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Bridging the Gap in South Africa: The South African Government's Proposed National Insurance Scheme Aims to Tackle the Stark Divide in Health Care between Rich and Poor
When she was four years old, Thando (not her real name) came for treatment at a public hospital in Johannesburg because she was very ill with AIDS. "I first saw her in 1998 with advanced disease and her CD4 count was less than 50" says Professor Ashraf...
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Developing the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0/developpement De L'outil Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 De l'OMS/Evolucion del Programa De Evaluacion De la Discapacidad 2.0 De la Organizacion Mundial De la Salud
Introduction Information on disability is an important component of health information, as it shows how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Along with traditional indicators of a population's health status, such as mortality...
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Engaging with the Water Sector for Public Health Benefits: Waterborne Pathogens and Diseases in Developed Countries
Introduction An editorial published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization in 2008 argued for stronger engagement between the health and water sectors, commenting "a public health perspective in water management provides opportunities...
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Examining Health-Care Volunteerism in a Food- and Financially-Insecure World
Introduction The problem of severe shortages in global health workforces is addressed in many places by using community volunteers. Whether it is unjust and/or unsustainable to rely on volunteerism in low-income settings, particularly in sub-Saharan...
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HIV Infection in Older Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: Extrapolating Prevalence from Existing data/Infection a VIH Chez Les Adultes Ages En Afrique Subsaharienne: Extrapolation De la Prevalence a Partir De Donnees existantes/Infeccion Por El VIH Entre Los Adultos De Mayor Edad En El Africa Subsahariana: Extrapolacion De la Prevalencia a Partir De Los Datos Existentes
Introduction Despite the global attention being paid to the epidemic of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV infection rates among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa have been a neglected area of study. The Joint United Nations...
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Human Cells and Tissues: The Need for a Global Ethical Framework
There is a distinct difference between tissue and organ donation, although it is usually not well perceived by the public. Solid organs (e.g. kidney, liver and heart) can be taken only from donors who are brain-dead and on life support or immediately...
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Impact of a Cash-for-Work Programme on Food Consumption and Nutrition among Women and Children Facing Food Insecurity in Rural Bangladesh/Impact D'un Programme De Remuneration En Especes Du Travail Sur la Nutrition et la Consommation De Nourriture Chez Les Femmes et Les Enfants Soumis a L'insecurite Alimentaire Dans Les Zones Rurales Du Bangladesh/ Influencia del Programa Dinero
Introduction Cash-for-work programmes are usually associated with disasters and emergencies and have been implemented in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Haiti, Indonesia, Pakistan and Uganda. (1) Many organisations employed cash interventions after the...
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Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants: A Decision-Support Tool for Sub-Saharan Africa/Traitements Preventifs Intermittents De la Malaria Pour Les Nourrissons: Un Outil D'aide a la Prise De Decision Pour l'Afrique Subsaharienne/ Tratamiento Preventivo Intermitente De la Malaria En Lactantes: Una Herramienta De Apoyo a Las Decisiones Para El Africa Subsahariana
Introduction The burden of severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is concentrated in young children and a recent pooled analysis showed that this is even more pronounced for malaria leading to death than for less severe forms of the disease....
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Lessons from New Zealand's Introduction of Pictorial Health Warnings on Tobacco packaging/Lecons Tirees De L'introduction Par la Nouvelle-Zelande D'avertissements Sanitaires Visuels Sur Les Paquets De cigarettes/Lecciones Aprendidas Tras la Introduccion De Imagenes De Advertencia Sanitaria En Los Paquetes De Cigarrillos En Nueva Zelandia
Introduction Since the World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) (Article 11) introduced minimum criteria on health warning labels for tobacco products, (1) the evidence for pictorial health warnings has strengthened....
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Nationwide Survey on Resource Availability for Implementing Current Sepsis Guidelines in Mongolia/Enquete Nationale Sur la Disponibilite Des Ressources Pour L'application Des Recommandations Sur la Septicemie En Mongolie/Encuesta Nacional Sobre Disponibilidad De Recursos Para Aplicar Las Directrices Actuales Para El Manejo De Casos De Septicemia En Mongolia
Introduction Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs) in high-income countries, and its incidence is on the rise. (1) Annually, 750 000 cases of sepsis occur in the United States of America (USA). (2) In Germany, sepsis...
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The Impact of an Emergency Hiring Plan on the Shortage and Distribution of Nurses in Kenya: The Importance of Information Systems/ L'impact D'un Plan De Recrutement D'urgence Sur le Manque et la Repartition Des Infirmiers et Infirmieres Au Kenya: L'importance Des Systemes D'information/ El Efecto De Un Programa De Urgencia Para la Contratacion Sobre la
Introduction The inequitable level of health-care provision in low- to middle-income countries compared with high-income countries has been well documented. (1-5) A variety of reports, including The world health report 2005 from the World Health...
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The Impact of Cell Phones on Public Health Surveillance
Random-digit-dial telephone sampling of households with landline telephones has been a popular tool for conducting surveys of the population in the United States of America (USA) in the past several decades. These surveys have provided a cost-efficient...
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Women's and Children's Health: From Pledges to Action
It has been a landmark year for the health of women and children. The world is making important progress in reducing the number of children dying from preventable causes. After six decades of little progress in reducing under-five mortality to less...
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