Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 84, No. 5, May

Access to AIDS Medicines Stumbles on Trade Rules: Developing Countries Have Several International Trade Law Provisions at Their Disposal to Help Them Buy Life-Saving Medicines at Affordable Prices for Public Health Needs, Particularly HIV/AIDS. but Only a Few Countries Are Using These Because of Red Tape and Political Pressure. WHO Is Helping Countries Navigate the Procedural Maze
Developing countries are failing to make full use of flexibilities built into the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to overcome patent barriers and, in turn, al low them to acquire...
A Clearing House for Diagnostic Testing: The Solution to Ensure Access to and Use of Patented Genetic inventions?/Un Office Central Pour Les Tests Diagnostiques : La Solution Pour Que Les Inventions Brevetees Dans le Domaine Genetique Soient Accessibles et exploitables?/Centro Coordinador Para Las Pruebas Diagnosticas: ?La Solucion Para Asegurar la Accesibilidad Y El USO De Las Invenciones Geneticas Patentadas?
Introduction Scientists, patent attorneys and academics have expressed concerns about the emergence of a "patent thicket" in the biomedical sciences. Many patents have been granted in this specific technical field, leading to concern among researchers...
A Human Rights Approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines/Liste Modele OMS Des Medicaments Essentiels : Une Approche Fondee Sur Les Droits De l'homme/Derechos Humanos Y Lista Modelo OMS De Medicamentos Esenciales
Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health-care needs of the population. They are selected with due regard to public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost-effectiveness. The first WHO Model List...
Benchmarking Progress in Tackling the Challenges of Intellectual Property, and Access to Medicines in Developing countries/Amelioration Des Criteres Permettant D'evaluer Les Solutions Aux Difficultes Pour Preserver a la Fois Les Droits De Propriete Intellectuelle et L'acces Aux Medicaments Pour Les Pays En developpement/Criterios Para Determinar Los Progresos De la Respuesta a Los Retos Que Plantea la Propiedad Intelectual
Introduction In January 2004 the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) (1) was established at WHO pursuant to the World Health Assembly (WHA) Resolution on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health (Resolution...
Choosing the Right Incentive Strategy for Research and Development in Neglected diseases/Choisir la Bonne Strategie D'incitation Pour la Recherche et le Developpement En Faveur Des Maladies negligees/Eleccion De la Estrategia Idonea De Incentivos Para la Investigacion Y El Desarrollo Relacionados Con Las Enfermedades Desatendidas
Introduction We live in an era of hope. Ten years ago, worldwide spending on research and development (R&D) for tropical diseases was a paltry US$ 50 million. (1) In a world where per-drug R&D costs averaged US$ 802 million, (2) substantial...
CIPIH Report: Main Recommendations
The independent Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) was set up by WHO Member States at the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2003 to investigate how to improve access to health products for diseases that...
Data Sharing and Intellectual Property in a Genomic Epidemiology Network: Policies for Large-Scale Research Collaboration
Introduction One of the most important discoveries of genome sequencing projects is the extent of genomic diversity in humans (1) and in human pathogens. (2,3) We now have many of the tools required for genomic epidemiology--the systematic investigation...
DNA Patenting: Implications for Public Health research/Brevetage De l'ADN : Consequences Pour la Recherche En Sante publique/Patentes Sobre ADN: Implicaciones Para Las Investigaciones En Salud Publica
Introduction Patents are tools for economic advancement that are supposed to contribute to the enrichment of society. Society benefits from the wide availability of new and useful goods, services, and technical information, that derive from inventive...
Do Patents Work for Public Health?
Carlos Correa graduated in economics in 1971 and law in 1972 and later earned his doctorate from the University of Buenos Aires in his native Argentina. Since then, he has pursued an academic career and held posts in the Government of Argentina from...
Drug Development Incentives to Improve Access to Essential Medicines
It is hardly a matter of controversy that, as a general principle, access to essential medicines is an issue of human rights. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights makes reference to the right to medical care (Article 25) and the right to share...
Essential Medicines and Human Rights: What Can They Learn from Each other?/Medicaments Essentiels et Droits De L'homme: Quels Peuvent Etre Les Apports Mutuels De Ces Deux concepts/Medicamentos Esenciales Y Derechos Humanos: Ensenanzas Mutuas
Introduction Essential medicines Since the 1970s WHO Ms promoted equitable access to basic health services through the concepts of primary health care and essential medicines. The first Model list of essential medicines of 1977 preceded the famous...
Expanding Global Research and Development for Neglected Diseases
In May 2003, the 56th World Health Assembly mandated the creation of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH), in large part because the traditional mechanisms of research and development (R&D) for new...
Human Rights: A Potentially Powerful Force for Essential Medicines
Health policy-makers need ways to increase access peoples' access to essential medicines. The human rights framework provides new tools for analysis, action, accountability, alignment of policies, and advocacy. To support the analysis of how well...
Implications of Bilateral Free Trade Agreements on Access to medicines/Consequences Des Accords Bilateraux De Libre Echange Sur L'acces Aux medicaments/Repercusiones De Los Acuerdos Bilaterales De Libre Comercio En El Acceso a Los Medicamentos
Introduction Medicines, like any other products, can be protected by intellectual property rights, such as patents. Such protection means that their production, importation and commercialization are subject, for a given period, to exclusive rights...
Intellectual Property and Public Health
It is appropriate that this issue of the Bulletin coincides with the report of the WHO Commission on Intellectual Property and Innovation in Health (CIPIH). (1) Developing health technologies for the world's poor people increasingly requires the wise...
Meeting the Need for Treatment: The Initiatives: How Do You Stimulate Research and Development (R&D) for New Drugs, Vaccines and Diagnostics, for Which There Will Never Be a Lucrative Market?
Many diseases prevail because drugs are old and ineffective, or simply do not exist. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major killer in poor countries, but no new anti-TB drug has been developed since the 1960s. There are rare, often life-threatening diseases,...
Patent Policy and Public Health in Developing Countries: Lessons from Japan
Introduction The relevance of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement to developing countries has been widely discussed at international fora, particularly regarding the impact of pharmaceutical product patents....
Public Health Ethics and Intellectual Property Policy
The articles in this issue of the Bulletin describe some of the challenges posed by notions of intellectual property in areas as diverse as genetic testing, genomic epidemiology, pharmaceuticals and vaccines. The constructive practical solutions suggested...
Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights: Unfinished Business
The context for this theme collection is the publication of the report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health. (1) The report of the Commission--instigated by WHO's World Health Assembly in 2003--was an attempt...
Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health: A Call to Governments
The Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) was given the task of reviewing existing research and development (R&D) efforts, examining the role of intellectual property (IP) in stimulating innovation, and to make...
Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health: An Industry Perspective
The report issued by WHO's Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation, and Public Health (1) (CIPIH) makes a number of positive recommendations for improving health in developing countries. However, the report understates the value of intellectual...
Rich and Poor Countries Divided on Patent Treaty
Developing countries fear that a proposed treaty to harmonize patent laws globally could have a devastating impact on their access to essential medicines, diagnostics and vaccines. A passionate and fractious debate around the proposed treaty underscores...
Rights and Practical Access to Medicines
The argument that access to essential medicines should be considered as a fundamental element when assessing compliance with the right to health is reasonable and well considered. As public health and biomedical interventions have increasingly come...
Staking Claims in the Biotechnology Klondike
My first brush with intellectual property came through defending free data release from the human genome project. I was amazed at the tacit acceptance by some that this information could and should be privatized. The product was not an invention: a...
The Impact of Open Access upon Public Health
Arthur Amman, President of Global Strategies for HIV Prevention (www.globalstrategies.org), tells the following story: "I recently met a physician from southern Africa, engaged in perinatal HIV prevention, whose primary access to information was...
The Pricing and Procurement of Antiretroviral Drugs: An Observational Study of Data from the Global Fund/Politiques De Fixation Des Prix et D'achat Pour Les Antiretroviraux : Etude D'observation Sur Des Donnees Provenant Du Fonds mondial/Fijacion De Precios Y Adquisicion De Medicamentos Antirretrovirales: Estudio Observacional De Datos del Fondo Mundial
Introduction Since the launch of the "3 by 5" initiative by the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of people receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has grown from about 300 000 at the end of 2002 to almost...